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FES Outstanding Graduate Student Paper Series

Each year, in the form of dissertations, theses, major papers and major projects, graduate students in the Faculty of Environmental Studies produce some of the best and most original scholarship within the York University community. The purpose of the Outstanding Graduate Student Paper Series is to recognize exceptional MES major papers and projects and to make them available to a broader readership (all dissertations are available from the National Archives of Canada).

The topics of the papers published through the series vary as widely as the research interests of the Faculty's graduate students. The papers address many of the issues typically associated with the natural environment, such as conservation, pollution and climate change, but also focus on other issues affecting or affected by the environment, such as health, politics, economics, planning and design, ethics, culture and technology. All of the works strive to reveal the complexity underlying and linking social and environmental problems and solutions. In past years, topics have included regional-development planning in the Czech Republic, idealizations of the female body in writing and photography, citizenship and the democratic process, First Nations story telling and political and environmental discourse, the ethics of disrupting and restoring nature, heritage conservation and interpretation, the biotechnology industry in global environmental politics, and environmental decline and disaster as the basis of refugee status.

Since 2000, the series has been published electronically. Papers from the 1999 series or earlier are still available as separately published works through the Faculty's publications office. For copies, contact fespubl@yorku.ca.

Series: 2013 | 20122011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997, Vol. 3 | 1997, Vol. 2 | 1996

2014

Dynamic Collectivity: Artistic Direct Action, Economic Sustainability, and the Punchlock Printing Collective
Ryan Ramin Hayes
Vol. 20 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
Through a case study of the Toronto-based Punchclock Printing Collective, this paper considers how experiments with prefigurative politics and collective cultural production pose alternatives to hegemonic power structures, and just as importantly, what kinds of contradictions and challenges these endeavours face. I begin with a personal story about my relationship to art and politics, a brief introduction to Punchclock, some theory I’ve found useful, and an overview of my research process. These sections set the groundwork for a detailed case study based on interviews I conducted with members of Punchclock. The first part of the case study explores how Punchclock formed and evolved over time as a social entity born from artistic, political, and economic desires. My research suggests that from 2003-2013 there were three discernible acts: a founding by two activist artists who brought a range of other people on board; a second wind of political and cultural activity under new leadership, which was interrupted by economic pressures, a stark turnover, and internal tensions; and a deradicalized third form in which Punchclock continued to function as a collective space for art production without direct engagement with political movements. The second part of the case study analyzes Punchclock’s activities in more depth: Who are the members of Punchclock? What are their relations of collective production? What is the meaning of their political graphics? What kinds of contestations of power are taking place? This approach is otherwise summarized as: WHO, HOW, WHAT, and SO WHAT. The reflections of Punchclock members offer complex and nuanced insights into these questions, which I hope will be useful for socially-engaged artists and anyone with an interest in cultural production and social movements. I found that when a group of outsider artists with activist backgrounds coalesced around Punchclock, new collective relationships allowed them to transcend their singular capacities and make important artistic, political and economic contributions to social struggles. These contributions were shaped by the hybrid and ever-shifting nature of their collective organizing, which brought activist artists together with musicians and other cultural producers. However, Punchclock’s eventual reversal in core membership from self-taught activists to art school graduates is indicative of the challenges with sustaining prefigurative collectives. Internal tensions are often exacerbated by the difficulties of surviving within a hostile political climate. Along with external factors, including aggressive gentrification and the onerous task of ethical sourcing with little money, internal tensions abounded: the effects of a wave of personal transitions and health crises were compounded by the lack of an access mandate, loose operating principles, and a devaluing of this work by movements themselves.

The Thrill and the Thrall of the Thing
Anne Wordsworth
Vol. 2 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
It is necessary to restrain our consumption practices if we are to have any hope of reversing the escalating environmental damage being inflicted on the planet. In order to reverse it, however, we need to understand the different forces that drive our practices of consumption and evaluate how we might address them. Since capitalism made manufactured goods widely available, critics have suggested a number of reasons why we have become so enamoured of consumption. Thorstein Veblen saw conspicuous consumption as being the driving force, Georg Simmel viewed it as a gratification of the ego, Karl Marx described consumption as commodity fetishism brought on by capitalist production and Walter Benjamin envisioned it as an unconscious response to the new dream world of consumer goods. All these theories contribute to our understanding of consumption. More recently, the idea of vital materialism, developed by Jane Bennett, suggests another dimension to the complex package of forces that propel consumption. Bennett submits that the liveliness of things attracts us, calls us and may invite us to consume. The question, then, becomes one not of denying our impulses to acquire things but the question of what is our relationship with things: do we make a commitment to them and respect their vital materiality as an ongoing presence in our lives, or do we use them up quickly and relegate them to the trash heaps of history? Other relationships with things, such as collecting or even hoarding, represent alternative ways of engaging with the material world. Collectors and hoarders can be said to be more sensitive to the vital materiality of things because they do not subscribe to the buy-and-discard model of consumption that is the economic paradigm for today’s world. These practices may show us how we can find joy in the acquisition and possession of things in a way that respects their materiality and does not continue to exponentially increase the toll that consumption takes on the planet.

2013

Public Participation in Planning as Urban Citizenship: Contrasting Two Conceptualizations of Citizenship in Toronto’s Ward 20
Gwen Potter
Vol. 19 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
In the past four decades public participation has become widespread in urban planning and more generally in urban governance because it is believed that outcomes that result from deliberation and dialogue are better and more just, and because decisions that follow consultation are believed to have more legitimacy. In planning for redevelopment, participation may be particularly crucial because established communities are disrupted. However, ‘public participation’ is a difficult concept to nail down. Participatory processes are defined and implemented in flexible ways that can empower residents but can also constrain their ability to meaningfully engage with decision-making. This paper argues that public participation in planning decisions represents an exercise of urban citizenship, and different conceptualizations of citizenship underlie differences in how planners and residents engage in participatory processes. Through a comparison of planners’ and residents’ understanding of public participation in redevelopment decisions in Toronto’s Ward 20, a ‘limited’ and ‘expansive’ conceptualization of urban citizenship are contrasted. The former conceptualizes urban citizenship in terms of knowledge-sharing within a broader governance system and emphasizes citizens’ responsibility to participate. The latter seeks to expand democracy by claiming a partial ‘right to the city’.

Sustainable labour in Ontario’s sustainable food movement: Where do migrant farmworkers fit in?
Kirsten Cole
Vol. 19 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
At a time when we’re trying to set things straight in our food system, why not get it all right? A growing number of Southern Ontario consumers and food organizations have demonstrated their commitment to a renewed, more sustainable food system but they’ve overlooked the major role of migrant labour in this scheme. This paper seeks to acknowledge this gap in our current food movement and explore the reasons for its neglect. Using focus groups and interviews it draws on the experiences of sustainable food initiatives, farmers, and labour advocates in the region to name the barriers that inhibit food movement engagement with the issues of migrant agricultural labour. The same methods are used to identify tensions around this complex issue and the often conflicting positions of the food system actors that surround it. The research is situated within Southern Ontario’s sustainable food movement with the objective of inspiring and informing action from the existing body of social movement actors here. The findings of this paper can be used as a resource for sustainable food initiatives to this end. They provide a framework of the current and historical struggles of migrant agricultural workers in Ontario and illuminate suggestions on how to navigate among these for collective social change. This is change that will directly benefit migrant agricultural workers employed in Ontario in the short and/or long-term.

Bioart as possibility for reconciling the division between nature and art in aesthetic discourse
Sundeep Virdi
Vol. 19 No. 3 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
The polarized notion of nature in contemporary philosophy separates the aesthetic discourse of art and nature. Where continental philosophers exclaim ‘there is no Nature!’, environmental aestheticians remind us that if we step out in to the natural world, we too would be seduced by its immense beauty. This conflict provokes a problem in aesthetic theory which risks losing the political way with which environmental philosophy necessitates aesthetic consideration. Instead, I argue that Kantian aesthetics should be revived alongside Bernard Stigler’s philosophy of technics and Bruno Latour’s theory of the collective to respond to the aesthetic challenges presented by Bioart. Stiegler suggests a radical new way of overcoming the subject/object divisions burdening both aesthetic theory and environmental aesthetics, while Latour promotes expanding aesthetic interactions with nonhumans, technical beings, and works of art. The project of conceptualizing the politics of aesthetics for environmental thought is revealed through a reading of Eduardo Kac’s Bioart.

Marseille? – A political economy of a capital culture – 2012
Nathan Schaffer
Vol. 19 No. 4 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
Comprised of three parts, this portfolio satisfies my learning objectives 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1 and 3.2 listed in my Plan of Study and is intended to provide theoretically informed perspectives on the urban processes in Marseille. In so doing, I demonstrate an understanding of my course work and research in the Master of Environmental Studies program by bringing together and applying course work within a field research project. The portfolio structure was chosen in order to facilitate the different perspectives through which such a presentation may take place, while satisfying my stated aims in my Plan of Study to seek out new questions about cities and urban regeneration, political economy and the production of space, contextualized in cultural production. Titled “Urban Space: Politics, Discourse, Policy”, my studies spanned a variety of subjects and disciplines (including aesthetic theory, policy and discourse analysis, political economy and critical geography), and I chose a research project that focused heavily upon the ways that ideas and initiatives around creativity and culture relate to those areas. I found it productive to present my final work both creatively and analytically, approaching my area of concentration from three different vantage points: part one takes a street-level, lived experience; part two, a political economy of the city and its ongoing urban projects; and part three, a wider systemic view from European and global perspectives. Fostering an intersection between experience and analysis is essential to understanding, and in this portfolio I effort to demonstrate some of that process. Following the progressive approach to learning I too throughout my course work, strategically choosing courses to answer the questions I developed in those prior, I entered Marseille with a set of concepts; I lived, moved, interacted and conducted research that first influenced and then again transformed my perspective. Through the articulation of both sides of that experience, neither being discrete, I have arrived at new questions and observations, and perhaps most importantly, a deeper and more complex understanding of urban space and urban policy.

Re-enacting Inua: Artistic practice as Inuit research and method
Naja Dyrendom Graugaard
Vol. 19 No. 5 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
These two portfolio components comprise a sustained meditation on some of the challenges and conflicts of decolonizing Inuit politics and identity in Greenland. In the light of capital-intensive development programs forced upon and adopted by Inuit, these two works draw on arts-based inquiry to re-engage and re-enact Inuit ways of knowing and being as part of the political processes of defining and practicing self-determination in Greenland. They document a self-reflective, experimental and artistic journey through which Indigenous performance appears as a potential site for decolonization. They seek to build and create “living memory”, pressuring neo-colonial narratives and re-creating Inuit ways of life. The theatre script, Inua, engages artistically with the intergenerational acts of transfer of Inuit knowledge. Through the memories an Inuk elder, colonial legacies and old Inuit stories, the play seeks to portray the personal processes involved in decolonization and reclamation. The essay, Re-Enacting Inua: Artistic Practice as Inuit Research and Method, elaborates a method for articulating and performing political aspects of Inuit knowledge and identity through life histories and oral narratives.

From Brown to Green? The Planning and Implementation of the Don Valley Brick Works’ Restoration
Anna Côté
Vol. 19 No. 6 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This paper examines the restoration of the Don Valley Brick Works quarry. An argument is made that with city planning increasingly emphasizing densification, there will be an amplified need to create greenspace in already-developed areas. Brownfields present one of the only opportunities to do so. The Don Valley Brick Works was therefore selected to be studied as a well-known example of a brownfield-to-green space conversion in the city of Toronto. After providing background on the site and the restoration initiatives, this paper examines three key areas in the restoration. The first is a political ecology analysis of the forces and actors that shaped the project from its conception to current operation. Secondly, the approaches employed in the ecological restoration itself are outlined and the outcome is evaluated using Eric Higgs’ four criteria of good ecological restoration. Finally, the human-nature interaction on site is examined by elucidating the approaches used in planning for human use of the site and describing the anticipated as well as actual interactions taking place. This research finds that the political forces that shaped the restoration led to both positive and negative impacts which have clearly marked the type of ecology found on site. Further, as a result of the prioritization of certain modes of human-nature interaction, the site’s ecological health is weak in certain areas, leading to questions of problem closure which aim to challenge the status quo in the future planning and management of the Brick Works. The goal of examining these issues is to provide lessons which can be applied to future brownfield-to-greenspace conversions, and these are subsequently outlined. The paper concludes by suggesting areas for further research.

Embracing Reciprocal Blindness: Listening to the Voices of the Earth through the Pedagogy of Storytelling
Hannah Glow
Vol. 19 No. 7 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
“Embracing Reciprocal Blindness: Listening to the Voices of the Earth through the Pedagogy of Storytelling” is a major paper that explores the use of storytelling in education as a way of engaging students’ minds and bodies in the world around them. Each of the six sections uses the author’s personal stories to explore and reflect on different themes relating to the more-than-human world, education, storytelling, listening and embodied experience. Jakob Von Uexküll believed that our differing perceptual worlds create a sense of reciprocal blindness between bodies (Agamben, 2003; 42), and the notion of reciprocal blindness is embraced in this paper in hopes that the voices and the stories of the Earth might speak for themselves through education. This paper examines the ways in which language affects stories and storytelling, the authority and resistance of stories, as well as the role of the story as a trickster. This paper uses personal narrative, fiction, and drawing to convey the varied roles of the pedagogy of storytelling and encourages its readers to reflect on these roles themselves.

Planning for improved food access in Toronto’s inner suburban apartment tower neighbourhoods
Josh Neubauer
Vol. 19 No. 8 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This paper assesses the role of municipal planners in increasing the accessibility of food in Toronto’s inner suburban apartment tower neighbourhoods. These inner suburban tower neighbourhoods are recognized as sites of severe challenges, including poverty, diet-related health problems, long distances to neighbourhood amenities, and low access to grocery stores. A municipal Tower Renewal initiative has been established to address some of these issues through a range of structural, economic and social strategies—including rezoning these strictly residential properties to improve access to essential amenities such as food stores. This paper builds on that suggestion by exploring food access in two case study neighbourhoods in Toronto’s inner suburbs, and by thoroughly assessing the role of City planners in facilitating five potential food retailing models in apartment tower neighbourhoods—supermarkets; food retail infill development on apartment tower property; food stores in retrofitted apartment units; small outdoor markets on tower properties; and mobile produce vending in tower neighbourhoods. Theoretically, I draw on concepts of social and spatial justice to suggest that municipal planners are implicated in the creation of unjust food access for inner suburban tower neighbourhoods, and that they have an important role to play in addressing these inequalities. I find that market-led urban governance limits the role of municipal planners in affecting food retail decisions, particularly in low-income and built-up neighbourhoods. As well, increasing food retail at almost any scale will be constrained by uncertainties regarding the financial and spatial viability of inner suburban apartment tower neighbourhoods. However, municipal planning can improve food retail accessibility by adopting a new approach to food retail planning for tower neighbourhoods. I suggest that this approach might include a combination of clear food policy direction, permissive land use policies, and an enhanced and proactive role for municipal planners in creating the physical and economic conditions required by food retailers. This approach may produce a more just distribution of food stores, though it represents an expenditure of public resources to attract private capital, with no guarantee of success. This has implications for future City planning efforts, as it reveals the inherent complexities and challenges of addressing historical planning mistakes.

Selling “Scousescraper” City: Geographical Networks of Power, Liverpool Waters and the Competitive City Project on Liverpool Waterfront
William Bedford
Vol. 19 No. 9 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This paper focusses on the role of key political relationships influencing Liverpool’s pursuit of “competitive city” status since the early 1980s, drawing on interviews with local experts and actors in urban development. A focus lies on the objective of the aesthetic revitalisation of Liverpool Waterfront for the purposes of place promotion and economic development under neoliberalism. In the time period covered by this paper, central government’s role in producing the terms by which regional cities compete is shown to be intimately bound up with a prioritisation of London as a global economic centre. It is argued that Liverpool Waters represents a new phase in an inconsistent trajectory of urban entrepreneurialism, distinguished by major private sector investment and appeals to localism. The relationship between Peel’s spectacular vision for Liverpool Waters, local political agency and processes of class realignment in the city are critically assessed.

Opportunities for the Procurement of Affordable Housing through Civic Initiative
James Calderone
Vol. 19 No. 10 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This Major Paper examines opportunities for the procurement of affordable housing through civic initiative. The notion of having individuals come together to secure housing that would otherwise be unattainable and extending affordability to future occupants is specifically explored. The associated rationale and preconditions for such actions are examined through a review of our four housing projects: Clarence Gate (Ottawa), Toronto Island (Toronto), Terra Firma (Ottawa) and Whole Village (Caledon). Primary and secondary sources are utilized for a qualitative assessment of these cases. Emphasis is placed on two facets of their design: tenure and the means of preserving affordability. A review of these projects suggests that, for civic initiative in the development of affordable housing to be successful, the right mix of elements needs to be achieved. Apart from the choice of tenure and the careful drafting of associated price controls, there is enormous value in establishing a focused organizational mandate and for groups to build on pre-existing social capita. In contextualizing this approach to procurement, a review of housing markets in Ontario is presented. Select factors that have contributed to eroding affordability are detailed, as is the withdrawal of federal and provincial governments from funding for social housing. The changing nature of urban residential development, from autonomous fee simple tenure to the inherent interdependence of high-rise condominiums, is also reviewed – giving cause to rethink traditional notions of homeownership. Having also 3 profiled the range of municipal tools to procure affordable housing and the limits to their affect, a case is made for supporting the type of integrated affordable communities represented in each case study. The paper concludes with popular arguments for and against the use of price controls, the secondary benefits of the communities profiled and the role of public a gents in facilitating similar housing initiatives. Price restrictions have entered recent discussions of inclusionary housing, as long-term affordability measures have come to be regarded as an important feature of such programs. In spite of staunch opposition from many economists, they are supported (more generally) out of regard for the social ills that may persist in an otherwise free market – displacement and homogeneity in neighborhood composition being two examples. Coupled with the observed success of the case studies profiled, this provides reason for public agents to support the development of similar housing projects. Facilitating the pursuit of privately initiated, affordable accommodation through consultation with planners (or other public services) would appear merited, but does not replace the need for an increase in public funding for affordable housing.

Community Organizing and Planning in Gentrifying Williamsburg, Brooklyn
Claire Harvey
Vol. 19 No. 11 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
Planners working inside and outside of the state can use social justice as a measure of success. In order to do so theorists recommend a connection with community groups, social movements, those forms of the social deemed radical or insurgent. Gentrification is an example of a spatial expression of inequity in which class specific power relations “are etched onto urban space” (Slater, 2009, pg. 297). Through this growth based and profit led form of urban development populations are often displaced through the loss of affordable housing and live/work spaces as urban neighbourhoods are gentrified without the policies in place to safeguard communities. Through community organizing, people have the capacity to resist the market-led urban development model followed by developers and subsidized by the state. Loft tenants in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York City, have lived in tenuous legal circumstances and have become vulnerable to displacement particularly following the rezoning/up-zoning of the neighbourhood to stimulate development. The recent passing of the Loft Law and the city-led process of translating that law into implementable rules has stimulated loft tenant organizing to resist displacement both through applying for building legalization and to have a voice in the laws implementation by the City appointed Loft Board. The organizing of loft tenants is an assertion of a right to the city and a validation of their urban citizenship. The actions of community organizers and tenants are theorized as connecting to a radical politics, which stands in opposition to the commodification of their homes and neighbourhood. A photo-film entitled: Williamsburg Neighbourhood Photo Tour – Community Organizing, Gentrification and Lofts accompanies this paper.

Nature and Community Experience in Community Gardening
Mélisanne Loiselle-Gascon
Vol. 19 No. 12 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
Living modern individualistic lifestyles in cities can decrease people’s awareness of existing human interactions with nature and community. By providing natural and social spaces in cities, community gardens can bring an experience of nature and community, and therefore contribute to the decreasing of people’s disconnection from nature and community life. The objective of the case studies of two community gardens in Toronto (Canada), Earlscourt Community Garden and Maloca Community Garden, was to get a better understanding of gardeners’ experience of nature and community, and to reflect on the ways to improve community gardens’ capacity to provide significant experience of nature and community life for gardeners. The field study included participant observations and semi-directed interviews, which provided an access to gardeners’ ideas and reflections on their community-gardening experience. The results of the field studies show that gardeners appreciate the physical contact with nature as well as the opportunity to witness natural processes, for example, plant growth. Because both community gardens have communal plots, gardeners got a chance to interact with other gardeners and to cooperate during group work. Even if the field studies illustrate that community gardeners experience nature and community at some level, such experience is not always at the center of gardeners’ attention during gardening activities. To bring about an awareness of the importance of nature and community life in gardens, adult environmental education programs could be designed specifically to achieve this goal in community gardens. Theories and practice of place-based education focus on learners’ local environment, which would contribute to focus learners’ attention on what surrounds them in their daily life. Gardeners’ perspective on learning and environmental education in community gardens is also an important aspect to understand their interests and expectations. Finally, the research on community gardens and on adult environmental education informed the creation of a calendar that include learning and gardening activities designed to guide garden coordinators in the integration of environmental education in community gardens.

2012

Deconstructing Lawrence Heights through Planning, Race, and Space
Kareem Webster
Vol. 18 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This major paper examines the implications of urban planning with respect to the built environment and public participation. It specifically analyzes the racialization of urban space and spatialization of race in marginalized communities through a case study of Lawrence Heights, a social housing neighbourhood in Toronto. The aim of this research is to flesh out the theories and processes related to the construction of identities through race, space, and the importance of place. I argue that the poorly built environment and barriers to public participation have contributed to the substandard conditions in the neighbourhood, which, ultimately have led to the current revitalization process. This community has been plagued with issues of crime, a deteriorating infrastructure, and the stigmatization stemming from a low-income neighbourhood. These factors have compounded, resulting in a space that has been reproduced as degenerate. My research is concerned with the relationship between identity and space and the role that the implications of planning have played in cementing this connection.

Cycling Advocacy, DIY Urbanism and the Transformation of Automobility
Dan Godin
Vol. 18 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
Automobile dependency has had a broad impact on Canadian society, and has become one of the most important influences on how cities are planned. It is widely recognized that increasing the modal share of cyclists, as a part of a broader ‘complete streets’ approach can help alleviate many of the problems associated with automobility. However, the institutionalization of the private automobile in Canadian culture and planning is a significant barrier to more widespread adoption of cycling for transportation. Through comparative case studies in two Canadian cities, this research paper explores the practices of cycling advocates and activists, and their relationship with transportation planning in each city. The objective of this research is to better understand how planners and advocates can create urban transportation systems in which cycling plays a central role. It finds that ‘advocates within government’ such as planners can play an important part in this transformation, but they rely on several key factors, including: 1) a strong and active cycling community, 2) community ownership of cycling projects, 3) political will. Planners should look to “insurgent” community-based planning and advocacy practices to build the necessary support for the transformative goals of planning.

The Paradoxes of State-Led Transnationalism: Capturing Continuity, Change and Rupture in the Eritrean Transnational Social Field
Samia Tecle
Vol. 18 No. 3 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
Processes of conflict and domination have historically influenced and continue to influence patterns of mass migration; in some cases, over time shaping the formation of diasporas. These processes have contributed to a rapidly growing body of literature exploring various aspects of what has been termed the migration-development nexus. Contrary to early arguments suggesting that migrants assimilate fully into the societies in which they settle, it is largely observed today that migrants inhabit transnational spaces where they varyingly maintain ties with their ‘home countries’. More recently, literature has acknowledged the ways subsequent generations raised outside the ‘homeland’ are socialized into transnational social fields and thus also lead transnational lives. A range of local, national and global actors have recognized the importance and potential of emigrant populations to transnational processes. Specifically, the ‘sending state’ has been an integral actor in the cultivation and mobilization of its dispersed populations. Relying on a host of mechanisms to ‘court’ their dispersed populations, states adopt policies in an attempt to institutionalize relationships with their diasporas. This portfolio situates itself within this relatively recent, yet quickly growing body of literature on the role of the state in transnational processes. Grounding my analysis in the Eritrean transnational social field, this portfolio locates the role of the Liberation Front-turned-State in engaging its dispersed populations over time. I emphasize the continuities, changes and ruptures that have highlighted and arise from Eritrean state-diaspora relationships since the formation of the Eritrean diaspora. In the face of significant legitimacy loss, relationships between the state and its local and dispersed populations have increasingly become marked by control and coercion aimed at ideologically and physically disciplining citizens. While my analysis is contextually situated within the Eritrean transnational social field, I acknowledge that the issues I explore are located within broader global processes. Thus, my analysis fluidly shifts between individual, national and global levels of analysis to highlight the differing and competing political considerations that are at play at each level.

Some, for all, forever: A Case Study of Participation in Water Management in South Africa’s Umgeni River Catchment
Beth Lorimer
Vol. 18 No. 4 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
South Africa is a water scarce country where freshwater resources are unevenly distributed in relation to the majority of its people. Integrated water resources management, which takes in all competing interests for water use, is crucial. In 1998, South Africa enacted the National Water Act, which created a progressive framework for water management in the country that promoted equitable and sustainable use of water resources. By equitable, the Act set out to repeal the discriminatory water policies of the apartheid era, which restricted access and allocation of water resources to black and Coloured South Africans. The main approach through which this would be achieved is public participation and a decentralized approach where decisions are delegated to the catchment level, through a catchment management agency. Several public forums, intended to initiate participation and identify key stakeholders towards the establishment of an agency, support these bodies. Since 1998, only two of the 19 proposed catchment management agencies have been established. This case study of one catchment management forum along the Umgeni River in Northeastern South Africa, analyzes this trend of institutionalization and evaluates participation in light of promoting National Water Act’s goals of redressing past inequalities. The case study illuminated that there is strong participation in the catchment related to the environmental concerns of the River. However, the degree to which participation in the forum addressed the social concerns within the catchment in relation to water use and allocation was less evident. The study concluded that reimagining how we organize and perceive participation in democracy is key as water management in South Africa moves forward.

Evoking a site of memory: An Afrofuturist Sonic Walk that Maps Historic Toronto's Black Geographies
Camille Turner
Vol. 18 No. 5 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
Drawing on the work of historians, geographers, writers and other Black Canadian Studies scholars I argue that Blackness has been systematically ‘disappeared’ from the Canadian nation. I explore various mechanisms through which this disappearance has been achieved, ranging from historical omissions to social exclusion as well as literally burying evidence of Canada’s Black past. Numerous theorists agree that the absence of Blackness defines the Canadian landscape and although their ideas about how to redress this absence vary, their work demonstrates that this absence is highly generative for Black artists and scholars. I apply this insight to my work as a digital artist creating HUSH HARBOUR, a sonic walk that utilizes digital media and performance to reimagine the past from the perspective of the present and future and to remap Blackness onto the Canadian landscape in embodied and sonic ways. Embracing elements of African Diasporic sonic, fantastic and spiritual traditions, I evoke a site of memory and desire within which participants recreate, reveal and transform the space that currently hides the Black presence.

Social Enterprises and Alternative Agro-Ecological Food Networks: A Co-operative Business Model for Agro-Ecological Vegetable Seed Production
Aabir Dey
Vol. 18 No. 6 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
Alternative agro-ecological food networks (AAFNs) are being advanced by farmers, civil society organizations, academics, and other concerned citizens, who understand the current agri-industrial food system to be ostracizing the socioeconomic needs of small-scale farmers and damaging the ecological processes required for food production. Advocates of AAFNs support transitioning towards a food system that consists of differentially-scaled farms that prioritize food security, community development, and ecological restoration. The transition towards regionally-populated AAFNs is partly constrained by corporate consolidation in all sectors of the food industry and by government policies that favour large-scale industrial farming. Maintaining a diversity of regionally-adapted agro-ecological seed varieties is an essential component to building AAFNs. Yet, the proliferation of hybridized varieties and their requisite agro-chemicals, the implementation of intellectual property rights on seeds, and the concentration of agricultural inputs by corporate agribusinesses, have disrupted the ability of farmers to reproduce agro-ecological seed varieties in Canada. The responsibility for preserving these types of seeds has been assumed by seed banks and small-scale seed enterprises; however, due to the oligopolistic pressures exerted by dominant market actors in the seed industry, these organizations face a variety of economic difficulties in scaling up their socio-ecological missions. Co-operatives are an alternative form of social enterprise that agro-ecological farmers can implement to better hedge against these market pressures and to reclaim ownership of agro-ecological seed production. The research in this report analyzes the feasibility of a regionally-based agro-ecological vegetable seed co-operative in the Greater Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario. The findings reveal that by pooling production from different vegetable seed growers in the region, a seed co-operative can economically sustain the preservation of agro-ecological seed varieties through a democratically-owned mission-based enterprise. In doing so, it is hoped that the co-operative can indicate to the market, the state, and the general public, one kind of organization that can meet the underserved needs of agro-ecological growers, and more broadly, begin to better facilitate a national transition towards regionally-based AAFNs.

The Beaufort Sea Maritime Boundary Dispute: High Stakes for Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Resource Extraction in a Changing Climate
Daniel Pomerants
Vol. 18 No. 7 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This paper analyzes the Beaufort Sea maritime boundary dispute and the risk it poses to Canadian Arctic sovereignty and resource extraction in the North as the effects of climate change become more apparent. The confluence of environmental change, national level policies, international governance regimes, and how they come together to govern the Beaufort Sea is, of utmost concern to Canada and relations with Arctic partners, including, most notably, the United States of America (US). Therefore, this paper integrates thinking from each of these fields to explore the history, status, role and future relevance of the Beaufort Sea maritime boundary dispute in Arctic governance debates to analyze the linkages between Arctic sovereignty and energy development. More fundamentally, this paper seeks to understand why the dispute has not been resolved, what a resolution may look like, and who stands to benefit, through an analysis of the role of international law as it relates to the seas to determine what this says about the current stakes and interests involved there.

The Role of Tour Operators in Visitor Management Planning: The Case Study of Algonquin Provincial Park
Lauren King
Vol. 18 No. 8 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
The first State of Ontario’s Protected Areas Report (2011) identified visitor impacts as one of the known threats to the maintenance or restoration of ecological integrity in Ontario’s provincial parks. Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) sustains the impacts of nearly million visitors per year (Ministry of Natural Resources, 2010), more than any other provincial park in Ontario. To mitigate these visitor impacts, APP has entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with The Friends of Algonquin Park and the Algonquin Backcountry Recreationalists to be the first provincial park in Ontario to officially adopt and deliver the Leave No Trace (LNT) program in Spring 2011. Due to limited funding, staff, and time, tour operators operating in APP may also be potentially important delivery-agents of the LNT program. Research shows that interpretation, through personal contact, is an effective visitor management tactic that can be used to encourage visitors to adopt an enhanced conservation ethic and modify their behaviour, such as LNT principles, in order to reduce their ecological impacts on the protected area. This case study used three methods to examine the type of interpretation currently delivered by a tour operator offering guided canoe trips in APP: (1) literature and documentation review; (2) focused interviews to determine the general manager’s, guides, and clients knowledge and use of LNT principles; and (3) participant observation to identify the actual LNT messages delivered and behaviour modelled by guides. The findings of this study reveal that guides are somewhat familiar with the LNT program and are practicing at least one of the seven LNT principles while canoe trip guiding. While litter and campfire-related impacts are identified as the most commonly observed visitor-related impacts by the guides, guides are more apt to properly dispose of waste, but still rely solely on campfires to cook all the meals at the campsite as well as having a nightly pleasure fire, despite having to collect appropriate firewood along portage trails or around the perimeter of the lake, due to barren campsites. These findings show that tour operators can play a much greater role in delivering the LNT program; however, guides require additional LNT training, in order to strengthen their role as delivery-agents of the LNT program in APP. Enhancing tour operators role in delivering LNT program will require greater involvement in VMP through collaborative planning, the establishment of a tour operators association to represent the collective interests of tour operators, and the use of a business licence scheme to ensure tour operators are incorporating the LNT program into guided canoe trips.

Alexandra Park: Dynamics of Redevelopment
Kirk Hatcher
Vol. 18 No. 9 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
Mixed-income planning has become the common-sense approach to public housing redevelopment in Toronto. Based on the premise of physical design dictating behaviour, social mix theory hinges on the idea that diluting the proportion of rental tenure via the supply of privately-owned units will break apart pathologies commonly accepted as being produced by concentrations of poverty. Interestingly, both the perceived benefits of social mix theory and the pathologies assumed to be produced by concentrations of poor people are empirically unfounded. However, by exercising place-making strategies that focus predominantly on the negative social and physical attributes of low-income neighbourhoods, change appears necessary and to the benefit of all involved. In this Major Paper, I will introduce the proposed Alexandra Park redevelopment as a case study of municipally-managed gentrification and mixed-income planning. The idea of a redeveloped Alexandra Park has been sparked by a progressive councillor and an involved group of residents accustomed to transformations in the governance structure of their neighbourhood. However, without the high exchange value of its prime downtown location, private investment in this economically underutilized neighbourhood would be unlikely. Aided by the territorial stigmatization of the neighbourhood and the racialization of its residents, place-making has enabled the common-sense approach to redevelopment in Alexandra Park legitimized by the concentrations of poverty thesis. It is my position that the existing residents of Alexandra Park will not reap the assumed, yet unwarranted, benefits commonly associated with socially mixing economically polarized groups of citizens. Redevelopment, instead, will lead to revalorized land that generates revenue in the form of property taxes, and a micro-segregated neighbourhood threatened by long-term gentrification processes related to increasing property values and consequent service transformations. Federal government shifts from redistributive and protective public policies to neo-liberal policies supporting growth and privatization that have occurred over the past three decades, have enabled the downloading of public housing provision from higher orders of government to fiscally austere municipalities, forcing housing providers such as Toronto Community Housing to rely upon private investment to cover operational costs. Consequently for the current residents, however, private investment in Alexandra Park will reduce their proportional composition to half of what it is today. Its current composition comprised predominantly of visible minorities, new immigrants, and low-income households in general, combined with a high exchange value of the neighbourhood, renders Alexandra Park highly vulnerable to municipally-managed gentrification. To borrow Jim Silver’s (2011) perspective regarding redevelopment, the razing of public housing neighbourhoods is less a response to the problems within them and more a project to valorize land and implement the agenda of neo-liberal governments, which are prepared to rearrange the lives of public housing tenants in the interest of more affluent soon-to-be residents.

Conditions of Possibility: Bio-power and governance in the quest for a supervised injection site in Toronto
Rebecca Tannahill
Vol. 18 No. 10 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
Drawing on Michel Foucault’s bio-power lens, this paper argues that supervised injection sites are political and governmental spaces that have emerged from the harm reduction movement as an alternative to prohibitionist approaches to drug use. Within this movement, harm reduction as a “health” policy has emerged as the new truth discourse in which to justify supervised injection sites as the most appropriate technique to address urban drug problems. However, supervised injection sites do not actually function as a form of health care in the traditional sense of optimizing life and wellbeing. Drawing upon secondary and primary textual sources and using the creation of The Toronto Drug Strategy (2005) as my analytical focus I show how supervised injection sites operate new governmental and political spaces that naturalize drug use and the various modes of disadvantage that often go hand-in-hand with it. Rather than promoting health, such undertakings normalize the dying body outside the health promotion frame.

2011

“Cashberta:” Migration Experiences of Somali-Canadian Second Generation Youth in Canada
Sagal Jibril
Vol. 17 No. 1 ISSN ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
My paper examines the circumstances that have pushed Somali-Canadian male youth from Toronto to Alberta; a region with a growing and booming economy. Once in Alberta, Somali youth are caught in situations where many are unable to work in their professional fields, or are unemployed and underemployed due to lack of skills and education. Without employment, some of these Somali youths have ended up in criminal activities—ultimately leading to their death. This paper is grounded in the migration, settlement and integration of the Somali diaspora of Canada throughout the 1990s to the present, with an emphasis on the difficult integration and settlement experience of Somali-Canadian youth. It seeks to better understand the experiences of Somali families, specifically Somali families from the Greater Toronto Area, and the barriers they have faced in their process of relocation from Somalia to Canada. Further, this paper emphasizes the experiences of Somali-Canadian second generation male youth who are impacted by the obstacles their immigrant families face upon arrival in Toronto, and how that has hindered their integration into mainstream Canada such as in the labour market, the education system and their experiences with discrimination and other systemic barriers. These families face literacy problems and therefore cannot provide necessary educational support to their children at home. They face employment barriers and housing conditions in areas that are sometimes prone to violence, and consequently do not possess the requisite political skills to assist their children in navigating the various institutions that they must interact with such as the schools, security, policing and judicial systems. All of these challenges have affected Somali youth leading to their own difficult experiences in Canada.I anticipate that this paper will add onto the paucity of research on second generation immigrant youth, specifically the experiences of Somali-Canadian males in Toronto, and the struggles they face every day, such as acute discrimination due to their race, skin color and religion, and their origins from an immigrant household usually situated in low income neighbourhoods in the Greater Toronto Area.

Ontario’s low-carbon transition: The role of a provincial cap-and-trade program
Ian Rice
Vol. 17 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This major research paper addresses the question of how a sub-national entity such as Ontario can design an environmentally effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading system in the context of policy gridlock in Canada and through the UNFCCC process. The paper begins by exploring the historical context of climate change policy at the international and national levels in order to demonstrate how we have arrived at the current situation of policy gridlock and illustrate the opportunity for sub-national entities such as Ontario to take a progressive approach to climate change mitigation. But as climate change policy develops in an asymmetrical fashion within Canada, North America and the globe, policymakers in Ontario need to carefully design the proposed emissions trading system to balance the need to maintain environmentally integrity of the system (i.e. make a contribution to the decarbonization of the provincial economy) without overly harming the economic competitiveness of the province vis-à-vis neighboring jurisdictions who are not implementing comparably stringent policies. Such asymmetrical policy development could damage the long-term political acceptability of the program should economic losses reduce the relative prosperity of Ontarians and also the environmental integrity of the program if emissions-intensive activities relocate to jurisdictions without stringent GHG controls. As such the paper examines important elements of emissions trading programs: setting the cap; distributing allowances; designing the offset system; managing the interaction with existing renewable energy policies; and the treatment of emissions-intensive trade-exposed industries; with a view to improving the environmental integrity of Ontario’s proposed program without harming its economic competitiveness. In each of these areas the experience garnered in the European Union Emissions Trading program (EU ETS) has been leveraged to provide policy recommendations to Ontario policymakers. The EU ETS has been in operation longer than any other GHG emissions trading program, and is the closest in design to Ontario’s proposed system. With the EU ETS having undergone a major revision in 2009 which will apply for the 2013-2020 time period, there is a major opportunity for Ontario to apply the lessons learned in Europe to its emissions trading program. The research methodology for this paper was a comparative analysis that used primary sources in the form of policy documents and interviews to understand the proposed design of Ontario’s program and secondary research using academic research that has evaluated the effectiveness of emissions trading programs in Europe and beyond.

“I Want to BE Loved” Tween Girls Make Media about Relationships: A School-Based Participatory Research Project
Brittany McKee
Vol. 17 No. 3 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This paper analyzes the media collages produced by female participants during a participatory research project conducted at an elementary school in Toronto, Ontario. The research project employed a variety of arts-based techniques, of which collage-making was one, to elicit girls’ perspectives on the theme of relationships. Participants were in grade seven and eight between the ages of eleven and fourteen at the time of the study. To contextualize the girls’ use of media in their collages, a brief introduction to current representations of girlhood in mainstream culture is provided. The girls’ collages are then analyzed using strategies of content analysis and narrative analysis. Emphasis is placed on understanding how the girls engage with media messages about gender and sexuality through their collages. Drawing on the results of this research, recommendations for integrating media literacy into health education programmes are presented.

Think About Thinking About Light: A Phenomenological Investigation of Lighting in Built Environments
Taylor Stone
Vol. 17 No. 4 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This Major Paper is a phenomenological investigation of lighting in built environments. As a work in phenomenology, there is no thesis guiding the inquiry. Instead, the paper is framed around a set of questions, and a search for insights through experience. Research is focused on the relationship between experiential and theoretical understandings of light, and the implications for ecological design. Much has been said regarding the varied history and theories of light. Likewise, quantitative concerns over lighting are prevalent in environmental literature. However, few works explore light from a qualitative perspective. As such, a new avenue is opened here for exploration – investigating the philosophical presuppositions informing understandings of light and their significance for environmental thought. The underlying thematic focus is a consideration of light’s ability to either foster or hinder notions of connectedness between humans and the more-than-human world, specifically in built environments. After introducing the topic of light as an area of inquiry, the larger theoretical framework, namely ecological design, is addressed. An argument is made for a deeper questioning of beliefs informing design theory, and the usefulness of environmental thought for progressing this goal. Phenomenology, and specifically embodied architectural phenomenology and Merleau‐Pontian ecophenomenology, are introduced as a more focused methodological and conceptual framework, merging architectural theory and environmental thought. Utilizing this framework, a research methodology is developed that combines hermeneutic and first person phenomenological analysis. Following the establishment of a conceptual framework, a phenomenological investigation of light is undertaken. The argument is made that, due to light’s unique nature, it cannot be experienced as an isolated phenomenon. Hence, metaphorical interpretations are used to describe and understand light. While some conceptual abstractions (discussed herein) can be useful, they also disregard the experiential light informing their existence. A proposed understanding of light through relationality, akin to Merleau‐Ponty’s notion of flesh, is made. From this new vantage point, a contemporary interpretation of light is explored. After establishing a relational conception of light, the tension between experiential and interpretive understandings are explored in three case studies: Dundas Square, The Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, and St. Gabriel’s Passionist Parish. A chapter is devoted to each site, designed as phenomenological descriptions with inserted historical/philosophical touchstones. The format is meant to further discussion concerning the relationship between experiences of light and metaphorical overtones, as well as how understandings of light manifest in built environments. Throughout each case study, several insights are uncovered regarding light and lighting’s ability to enhance or shadow the connectedness between humans and the more‐than‐human world. The conclusion briefly summarizes case study findings, and offers future directions for related research.

Global Navigation Satellite System Road Pricing in the Greater Toronto Area
Jason Aslanidis
Vol. 17 No. 5 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This paper discusses the prospects of overcoming the hurdles to implementing a policy of road pricing in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) via Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology. The paper begins by outlining some of the theories and issues surrounding road pricing implementation. Next, the experiences of three other jurisdictions with implementing road pricing are analyzed, followed by an analysis of the debate in the GTA and the merits of GNSS tolling compared to other policy options. The two main hurdles to GNSS road pricing in the GTA, costs of the system and privacy concerns, are identified and examined. Suggestions to overcome these hurdles are offered and evaluated. The paper concludes with an analysis of how such an implementation strategy would affect the issues of road pricing acceptance and governance.

2010

These are our water pipes: Sand dams, women and donkeys - dealing with water scarcity in arid lands
Abby Cruikshank
Vol. 16 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
As climate change continues to alter the reliability and intensity of rainstorm events, and lead to higher evaporation rates many traditional water collection methods in Africa’s arid and semi-arid lands are failing to provide water throughout the dry season. Sand dams, which are impervious concrete barriers built across ephemeral streams, are increasingly being used as an adaptation strategy to deal with water insecurity. This strategy requires community participation to construct the dam and management of catchment erosion in order to ensure the dam reaches maturity. A mature sand dam enhances the riverbed storage capacity through the accumulation of sand against the upstream side of the dam. This expansion of the riverbed reservoir allows water to be stored in the area that otherwise would have been lost downstream. The sand further protects the water by limiting the potential for evaporation, thereby ensuring availability of water throughout the year. A mature sand dam is additionally argued to improve the quality of water and build resilience through enabling ecological restoration, diversified livelihoods and the creation of social capital through the requirement of community participation. Through the evaluation of five sand dam projects in five different Kenyan communities, this study evaluates the social factors and processes that contribute to the successful sand dam projects. Successful sand dam projects are deemed those in which the sand dam reaches maturity and in which social capital built during the construction phase enabled further development projects. Using qualitative research methods participants, non-participants and project leads voiced perspectives, successes and challenges in relation to sand dam adaptation strategies. The case studies illuminated the importance of community cohesion and drive, capacity building and follow-up from the implementing institutions. It was determined that these social factors are equal in importance to the proper construction and technical considerations of the concrete structure and are in fact the key factors in a dam maturing into a sand dam.

Modernity, Resource Development and Constructs of Indigeneity: A Summary Analysis of Canadian Jurisprudence and Aboriginal Rights
Stéfanie S. Primeau
Vol. 16 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
Stereotypes and constructs of indigeneity have social, legal and economic implications for Aboriginal communities in Canada. In particular, essentialist constructs of indigeneity, whether they are manipulated by Aboriginal people themselves or used by judges as legal tests, significantly inform the making of judicial decisions. This paper explores how essentialist constructs of indigeneity both influence judicial decisions and restrict the economic self-determination of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. In the first chapter, a conceptual framework is developed to examine the appropriation of essentialist constructs by those at the margins of society while being explicitly critical of the various essentialisms embedded in modernisation theory, i.e. the tradition-modernity polarity. An analysis of the 1973 Kanetewat v. James Bay Development Corp. in the next chapter highlights the benefits of the strategic use of essentialist constructs of indigeneity by Aboriginal people: opposing hydroelectric development on the grounds that it would harm their traditional way of life, the James Bay Cree successfully brought the James Bay Project to a halt. Finally, my last chapter demonstrates the limited effectiveness nowadays of strategic essentialism in the judicial system. Through my analysis of the impact of the 1982 Canadian Constitution on certain subsequent Supreme Court cases, the most noteworthy of which is the 2005 Marshall R. v.; Bernard R. v. Supreme Court decision, this chapter shows that legal constructs of indigeneity embedded in the legal system (i.e. “frozen” rights approach to Aboriginal rights) block Aboriginal people from engaging in resource development. In sum, Aboriginal people in Canada do not have the liberty to assert their right to self-determination since they can only legally engage in traditional and customary practices: not only does this imply that they have less than full ownership of their traditional lands, it also means that Canadian jurisprudence restricts them from being modern Aboriginal communities, i.e. to assume both modern and traditional identities. Key Words: economic self-determination, modernity, Aboriginal rights, resource development.

Underlying factors of opposition to an offshore windfarm in Lake Ontario
Jennifer Taylor
Vol. 16 No. 3 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This research paper discusses the factors that have influenced opposition to an offshore wind farm off the Scarborough Bluffs in Lake Ontario. Toronto Hydro Energy Services, a municipally owned utility in Toronto, Canada has installed an anemometer in Lake Ontario to determine the economic feasibility of a large offshore wind farm. Guildwood residents residing in close proximity to the proposed project have expressed concerns, and a public meeting in November 2009 drew over one thousand attendees. Semistructured interviews of Guildwood residents and Grounded Theory coding analysis were undertaken to extract the values, beliefs and logic that underlie negative attitudes of the Guildwood residents who have mobilized to stop an offshore wind farm from being built. Using the data itself to determine the analytical categories, results from the interviews have been presented as six major themes: The Bluffs are a Special and Unique Place: Industrial Wind Power Does Not Belong in the Lake; Consultation was Inadequate and Offensive; Wind Power’s Viability and Benefits are Exaggerated and/or False; Money and Politics Underlie the Push for Wind Power; An Offshore Wind Farm Poses Risks to Human Health, Avian Life and the Local Community and NIMBYism is a Duty. The results indicate that wind energy debate is a new kind of environmental controversy, where both opponents and proponents argue their cases in environmental terms. They also show that there is a dearth of meaningful dialogue between offshore wind proponents and opponents, which limits both parties’ understanding of the issues. In addition, the results show that landscape values played an important role in determining respondents’ attitudes, even though respondents did not emphasize them for fear of being branded NIMBYs. Although NIMBYism generally connotes selfishness, many respondents in this research opined that it is a natural and logical response to perceived threats to one’s health and local environment.

An Alternative Agricultural Future for a Maitland Valley sub-watershed
Mark MacNeil
Vol. 16 No. 4 ISSN 1708-3548 (online)
It is well established that conventional agriculture imposes external costs on society and reduces the many benefits that agroecological systems produce, especially in highly cultivated watersheds where farm fields and larger landscape elements alike have been compromised and simplified. Conserving soil, water and biodiversity is essential to improve the ecosystem services that sustainable agroecosystems provide, including food, moderate and sufficient water flows, filtration of wastes and purification of surface and ground waters, and habitat for wildlife. Best management practices and landscape conservation objectives, when combined with support and financial incentives can reward farmers’ provision of these multiple benefits. Organic farming integrates many ‘best management practices’ in a holistic approach to improving the farm environment by minimizing external inputs and fostering natural processes. Future scenarios are a creative way to explore the impact of alternative land management approaches in a realistic manner to probe potential economic and ecological impacts over time and can be used to improve decision-making and perspective on the likely outcomes of distinct policy trajectories. This study took a future scenarios approach to exploring a sub-watershed level transition to organic agriculture in the Middle Maitland sub-watershed above Listowel, Ontario, combining geospatial, environmental, ecological, agricultural, economic and institutional factors and employing GIS and Enterprise Budgeting methods. The model permitted an assessment of some of the potential enhancements in the levels of ecosystem services provided by the farming area, combined with a model of annual net returns and a set of incentives designed to reward ecosystem services from farming over a ten-year period. The organic scenario displayed the expected fluctuations in returns over the transition period, and beef farmers (both conventional and organic) and stockless farmers (organic) faced significant financial difficulty; overall, ten year returns saw organic receive higher net returns than conventional for 5 of 6 farm types. Program payments over ten years for the conventional and organic scenarios amounted to $1 million and $1.5 million respectively, however organic program total ten year costs to government and conservation foundations increased to $2.25 million when considering more aggressive support for beef and stockless farmers. Preliminary estimates from the model indicate significant expected improvements with the organic scenario above the conventional scenario for several ecosystem services, as well as higher satisfaction of landscape conservation targets established by authorities to achieve a ‘healthy watershed’ in the Maitland Valley. This work will set the stage for further alternative agriculture scenario modeling for the Maitland Valley in other research initiatives.

Participatory to the End: Planning and Implementation of a Participatory Evaluation Strategy
Joanna M. Duarte Laudon
Vol. 16 No. 5 ISSN 1708-3548 (online)
The paper explores participatory evaluation as a viable option for evaluating participatory processes. Participatory evaluation aims to actively engage diverse program stakeholders at various stages and tasks of the evaluation process. Considerable literature has been published on the promises that stakeholder participation in evaluation holds for increasing the use of evaluation findings, supporting organizational learning and stakeholder empowerment.However, not all contexts are conducive to the successful implementation of participatory evaluation or to maximizing its potential. The paper discusses these opportunities and challenges in the case of Toronto Community Housing where a set of tenants and staff, with the help of external facilitators, engaged in an evaluation of the organization’s participatory budgeting process. The paper draws from this grounded experience to explore the meaning of stakeholder participation in evaluations, how participation can lead to credible findings, and what impact participatory evaluation has on participants, the organization, as well as the participatory program. Data was gathered to assess how the approach was viewed through the eyes of evaluation sponsors, participants and external evaluators. The paper ends with recommendations regarding the types of circumstances that may best support the participatory evaluation approach as well as strategies practitioners can adopt to ensure its successful implementation in the context of participatory processes.

2009

Mispronouncing Resistance: Uncovering Tales and Lessons in the Production of Creative Cultural Expression in Singapore
Shuxia Tai
Vol. 15 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This paper is the author’s endeavor to understand Singapore and the ways that ordinary residents express alternative views in a highly politically controlled but affluent environment. Unlike actions of resistance elsewhere, Singaporeans engage in less aggressive activities of non-confrontational or covert resistance to avoid inconveniences with the law. By looking into cases of non-confrontational cultural resistance, I suggest that ideas of resistance in authoritarian countries as solely created to oppose the ruling class or the state should be reconsidered. Although non-confrontational resistance in my case studies may be read as criticisms of the state, they are also examples of power relationships between residents of different ethnicities and social class, and between corporations/international organizations and the people. To investigate why and how people resist covertly or indeed resist, I propose to look into the conditions that influence their views and decisions. This includes the ways that global and local activities and connections affect the individual’s knowledge and perspectives.

Energy Planning for Sustainable Communities: Sustainable Pickering’s Journey
Diane Perkin
Vol. 15 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
Energy is essential to the quality of life that citizens have come to expect but it has come at a price. Increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have contributed to climate change – altering weather patterns and rendering communities vulnerable to more intense storms and climatic conditions – and degrading air quality – increasing smog and air pollution leading to increased respiratory illness and affecting the health of millions. Clearly the way we power our communities needs to be rethought. Environmentalists agree that municipalities, citizens, planners and business (including utilities) need to work together as the challenge is too large for any one sector to undertake on its own. Sustainable community energy planning (CEP) seeks alternatives to our current energy paradigm – replacing fossil fuel with renewable energy (including solar and wind) and considering different generating and distribution systems. Innovative technologies exist and working models demonstrate alternatives (such as district energy, waste to energy and ecoindustrial parks). Municipalities will need to identify opportunities and create partnerships to implement SCEP. Yet while many communities are planning to become more sustainable and have created action plans and targets few have implemented them. Planners, as stewards of cities and experts in understanding sustainability and its importance to communities, can act as facilitators enabling this transition through the planning process by using their tools (zoning, by-laws, density controls and building and infrastructure design) and by helping municipalities to collaborate with business. In a carbon-constrained future, business will also need to rethink their business models to become more carbon efficient and be willing to be active partners in achieving more sustainable communities. The City of Pickering embarked on their sustainability journey in 2005, has laid a solid foundation for creating a sustainable community and is now considering how to implement their Local Action Plan. Using Pickering as a case study, this paper considers three questions regarding using CEP in creating sustainable communities: what are the opportunities and constraints, what can we learn from Pickering’s sustainability journey, and lastly what needs to be done towards achieving our goal of using CEP to create sustainable communities?

2008

'Seaweed, Power, and Markets: A Political Ecology of the Caluya Islands, Philippines.'
Shannon Arnold
Vol. 14 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
The integration of remote places around the world into common markets and the expansion of market based economies is one of the most transformative processes of the global capitalist age. While South East Asia, and the Philippines in particular, have long been part of international trade and related processes of agrarian transition the degree and speed of integration of remote areas directly into commodity flows and globalised markets is a newer phenomenon. Rural areas in the Philippines are being integrated into market relations through diverse and varied processes such as the capitalization of agriculture, land titling and privatization, and the commodification of nature and lifestyles. The site of this study, the Caluya Islands, Philippines, offers a glimpse into the contingency and complexities of market integration experiences for socio-ecosystems. The aim of this study is to interrogate the differing processes and outcomes of two forms of market integration vying for the same space in the Caluya Islands: seaweed cultivation for export and international tourist development. Political ecology frames the analysis of market integration in Caluya and help me interrogate the importance of material nature, the centrality of power, and the interplay between local and extra-local forces. Unlike, experiences with cash crops elsewhere, seaweed cultivation has been overwhelmingly beneficial in Caluya. I argue this is due to a particular 'constellation' of factors: the material characteristics both of seaweed and the space of Caluya; local social structures; and extra-local factors. This configuration has resulted in a sustainable, hybrid economy. In contrast, imminent tourism development pushes market relations into the centre of life here, potentially undermining stable socionatural structures and disrupting the constellation of conditions that keep this system viable. By exploring the contrasts between the two, my research contends that certain conditions and configurations can be identified that link market integration to positive benefits, rather than to marginalization and environmental degradation.

'Implementing the Growth Plan: Examining Opportunities for Local Interpretation in a Globalizing Region'
Jennifer Ann Draper
Vol. 14 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This major paper examines the implementation of the Province of Ontario’s Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe and utilizes the Region of Peel and its three area municipalities as a case study subject. Premised upon an interest in researching the intersection of governance, sustainability and growth management within a current regional planning context, this paper identifies a highly divergent implementation politics within Peel. Expressions of autonomy and interest in local determination over community planning and growth are unveiled and are shown to be enveloped by local development pressures and differing development emphases. Sustainability and governance form the theoretical foundation of this study and their interplay with growth management is explored as is the applicability of the emerging concept of Multi-Level Sustainability Governance to Ontario’s regional planning landscape. The Growth Plan holds tremendous potential for changing the urban form of the Greater Golden Horseshoe but relies upon successful and consistent implementation. Although the Province regards the Growth Plan as a tool for achieving community sustainability, a shared definition of sustainability remains to be formulated and as such, competing visions of sustainability challenge the foundations of the Plan. Furthermore, the Plan’s goal of consistent implementation is being challenged on three fronts: i) through unfolding scalar tensions; ii) as a result of varying governance objectives; and iii) due to unresolved provincial-regional and regional-municipal governance conflicts. Compliance can be achieved through enforcement measures held in-place by the Province but it is questionable if these will be executed considering the Province’s very recent re-entry into regional planning matters. However, with implementation continuing into 2009, municipal governments are just beginning to understand the implications of the Plan’s policies and new governance and sustainability challenges are bound to arise, thereby beckoning further research into contemporary regional planning in the Greater Golden Horseshoe.

'Community-Based Sustainable Tourism within Conservation Areas: A paradigm for environmental and socio-economic alleviation of Mexicans?'
Michelle Arroyo
Vol. 14 No. 3 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This research examines the role of community participation in the implementation of a project of sustainable tourism within a conservation area in México. It aims to illustrate the value and challenges involved in promoting community-based participation, and seeks to propose a method that can be easily used by diverse Mexican communities eager to conserve their environment without compromising their wellbeing. The field research and project took place in a Mexican oil worker community. Community members, agencies and the President of the municipality were engaged in defining the issues and my research agenda. Closing the open-air garbage dump was the major concern that the community wants to address. The analysis included: a literature review; policy analysis; formal and informal interviews with an open-ended questionnaire, analysis of an Ixhuatlán de Sureste community-based project initiative; stakeholder identification; a sustainable tourism project proposal; concluding with an evaluation of the possible conflicts that the rural community could develop if following this alternative state government initiative. This project proposal contributes to the understanding of the Mexican environment policy as a new tool of land regulation and suggests the minimum aspects which need to be achieved when implementing a community-based sustainable tourism project.

2007

‘From Health Crisis to Development Crisis: A Challenge to the Development Approach to HIV/AIDS.’
Sara O’ Shaughnessy
Vol. 13 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
Over the past decade, the HIV/AIDS crisis has been reconceptualised from a health problem, with an emphasis on the behavioural and biomedical aspects, to a development problem, in which major development organisations have taken on a predominant leadership role. This reconceptualisation has been praised for increasing awareness of the wider contextual factors impacting on HIV/AIDS; however, it has not yet provided effective policies and solutions for this crisis. This paper argues that certain characteristics of mainstream development are at variance with the multiple dimensions and demands of the crisis, including a bias towards economic factors, an ignorance of the political context and a top-down organisational structure.

‘Of Turtles and Tactics: Conservation and Sustainable Community Development in San Francisco, Costa Rica.’
Frederik J.W. van Oudenhoven
Vol. 13 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
A question often faced by conservationists in developing countries is whether their efforts to protect endangered species will ever work if they do not also address human poverty. Sea turtles are a classic example, and the source of an ongoing confl ict between the (global) conservation movement and people who have relied on them as a food source for hundreds of years. Inspired by high poaching rates on an as yet unstudied sea turtle nesting beach on the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica, this paper attempts to elucidate the role that conservation agencies can play in the protection of the animals through the development of alternative livelihoods for poachers in the nearby village. It is argued that an approach of community development is necessary to, fi rstly, ensure that poachers benefi t from renouncing their previous livelihoods and lift their ‘veto’ over conservation efforts and, secondly, create the social fabric required to successfully sustain individual livelihood or community-based conservation projects in the future. The paper combines a practical analysis of the village’s livelihoods with a more conceptual exploration, based on the theory of autopoiesis, of the process of community development and how that process may be ‘manipulated’ to create ecologically responsive communities.

‘Low Hanging Fruit Always Rots First: Observations from South Africa’s Crony Carbon Market.’
Graham Erion
Vol. 13 No. 3 ISSN 1702-3458 (online)
In what follows the first in-depth study of the South African carbon market is undertaken. The study begins by laying out the current state of the global carbon market and some related critiques. Turning to the South African context, four Clean Development Mechanism projects are examined in-depth. These include the controversial Bisasar Road Landfill project in Durban, the Sasol fuel-switching project in Sasolburg, plus the South Bellville Landfill gas capture and the Kuyasa low-cost housing energy upgrade projects in Cape Town. In addition to analyzing these projects this study also examines the social and institutional capacity in South Africa to provide oversight of this market. Through this examination it is shown that many of the more dubious trends in the global carbon market are being replicated in South Africa, particularly around the so-called “low-hanging fruit” projects that generate a lot of cheap credits but few other benefits. Just how this situation might get resolved is the focus of the concluding chapter that offers a number of suggested reforms.

‘Toward Popular Environmental Education in Marginalized Watershed Communities: The Case Study of São Paulo.’
Claudia de Simone
Vol. 13 No. 4 ISSN 1702-3458 (online)
It is rare to find a critical discussion of race in literature about Brazilian urban environmental degradation and water pollution. Most of the literature discusses what to do with the “problem” of the periphery neighbourhoods – called favelas – whose residents are often represented as polluters of the rivers near to which they live and as occupiers of ‘environmentally risky’ territory. In Brazil, it is common to encounter environmental education projects that incorporate a debate on economic inequalities and environment, but without mention of colonialism or race subjection. Using the case study of São Paulo, this paper shows how racism has been historically spatialized through the material production of the favela, as well as through its discursive production in mainstream media and literature. That environmental injustices taking place in racialized communities are officially accepted makes it crucial to problematize this hegemonic violence in educational spaces. I argue for the discussion of race, interconnected with class and gender, in environmental education. Paulo Freire’s principles of a pedagogy of the oppressed are critical to a discussion about the meaning of an anti-colonial pedagogy and thus, of the practice of anti-colonial environmental education.

The application of ecosystem approaches in the Golden Horseshoe Region, Ontario’
Marta Berbés
Vol. 13 No. 5 ISSN 1702-3458 (online)
Environmental crises have prompted a re-evaluation of traditional approaches to environmental management that has often highlighted their inability to deal with the complexity of social-ecological systems. The ecosystem approach (EA) offers an alternative that combines ideas from systems theory, participatory decision-making and adaptive management. However, EAs are still relatively young both as a discipline and as a practice, and as such, their meaning is continuously being redefined. This paper assesses the current state of development and the direction of EAs in the Golden Horseshoe Region (Ontario) by analyzing quantitative and qualitative data from interviews with EA practitioners. Practitioners were involved in projects that applied EA in a variety of fronts from ecological restoration to eco-health to urban development. The survey used helped to identify the theoretical foundations and core themes of EA; the methods, techniques and tools used; and, the factors and barriers to its implementation and potential application to other contexts. Two findings emerged from this research: first, despite the diversity of practitioners and applications, the theoretical understandings of EA are coalescing into a unified view that emphasizes the principles of integration, connectivity and participation. Second, successful implementation of EAs will require a parallel shift in the current institutional setting towards more adaptive forms of governance. Despite this obstacle EA continues to spread to applications in the fields of eco-health and urban development.

Environment in mind: A creative and ecocritical look at popular literature
Amanda Di Battista
Vol. 13 No. 6 ISSN 1702-3458 (online)
Ecocriticism, the “study of literature and the environment” (Glotfelty xvii) is expanding to meet the needs of an ever changing environment, currently shifting to include a broader range of critical methodologies, genres and styles. As such an exploration of the ways in which differential knowledge produced by various methods of presentation of similar information influences the quality and effectiveness of ecocritical discourse and the development of ethical behaviour is an important endeavour when considering ecocritical perspectives on environmental education. In particular the incorporation of the ideals of narrative criticism and the flexibility of representation and subject matter of creative writing is an opportunity to present ecocritical practice to a wider range of individuals. By treating two pieces of “popular literature” in two different styles, academic and creative, the following study aims to investigate the importance of these differing vantage points in elucidating environmental relationships within and outside of the texts. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll and Three Day Road by Joseph Boyden are the focus of ecocritical study and the inspiration for works of creative fiction in the following study.

Regional infrastructure planning in a splintering urban world: The Greater Toronto Transportation Authority
Michael James Hodge
Vol. 13 No. 7 ISSN 1702-3458 (online)
This major paper examines the role of the Greater Toronto Transportation Authority (GTTA) in the planning and provision of regional transportation infrastructure in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The main objective of this Major Paper is to understand what role the GTTA might play in light of the theoretical literature on the role of the state in transportation infrastructure planning and provision, along with the history of regional planning and governance in Ontario. The GTTA is in a position to have a profound impact on transportation infrastructure planning and provision for decades to come, and will allow it to either contribute to the emerging splintering of the urban environment or to improve and expand transportation options on a collective basis for the region as a whole. The GTTA faces several challenges: limited power and funding, and cantankerous inter-governmental relationships are some of the obstacles it will face. This paper assesses these challenges and develops an understanding of the likely outcomes. A common goal of both the province and the GTTA’s member municipalities is to improve the region’s global competitiveness through improved transportation infrastructure planning and provision. However, the GTTA is a regional governance body still in its infancy and this research illuminates an uncertainty amongst members about its potential role and abilities.

A Critical Examination of Pedagogy and Ways of Knowing of People with Autism
Daniela Kibedi
Vol. 13 No. 8 ISSN 1702-3458 (online)
Traditionally, autism has been treated as a disability in that individuals with autism have been thought to have deficits that need to be remedied. This notion has been perpetuated by the definition of autism provided by the medical model, as well as notions of the “norm.” “Environmental thinking,” as defined by the Faculty of Environmental Studies (FES), allows for the examination of autism outside of this predominant common sense view that pathologizes it. From a critical disabilities perspective, the hegemonic view of autism serves to oppress individuals with autism and other so-called disabilities. Alternatively, the social model of disability proposes that the environment is what enables or disables individuals. One important environment is the pedagogical environment. Given the prevalence of autism and the high costs associated with providing the necessary support, education has become a social and political issue. Pedagogical approaches currently used can be controversial. The fields of critical pedagogy and critical special education offer insights that could serve to inform and improve educational practices. These critical fields suggest the alternative perspective that people with autism have a different way of knowing that is different from predominant western ways of knowing, but is equally valid. This study is guided by several questions that emerge from this notion, including questions about the ways in which people with autism “know” the world, as well as the appropriateness of certain pedagogical approaches. In addition, this inquiry is structured around themes from critical disability studies including: honoring the experience of “disability,” inclusion versus exclusion, visibility versus invisibility, and “disability” as a political and social issue. These themes serve to highlight some of the current issues facing people with autism, their parents, and educators. The qualitative study, which is part of this work, provides important first-hand information from these different groups. This study concludes that as individuals with autism comprise a heterogeneous population, there is no single best pedagogical approach. Rather, the method should be tailored to address the needs of the individual. In addition, it is suggested that there are problems with current conceptions of the “norm,” intelligence, and pedagogical approaches as these can be too narrow and often serve to exclude individuals with autism as well as those with other exceptionalities. A broader definition of intelligence is needed, such as the one proposed by Dr. Howard Gardner’s concept of multiple intelligences, which recognizes different abilities and respects multiple ways of knowing. Furthermore, pedagogues should be mindful of the hidden curriculum as this is universally difficult for children with autism to grasp. Ultimately, through the challenging of current hegemonic notions of autism, it is possible to envision a world where the common sense will be shifted to see autism as an opportunity for individuals to live out a unique way of being, and for society to learn from their gifts and experiences.

“The Call of the World, A Levinasian Response”
Ronit Little
Vol. 13 No. 9 ISSN 1702-35498 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This paper addressed my desire to respond to the devastation of nature through the postphenomenological thought of Emmanuel Levinas. Its intent was to describe Levinas’s event of the pre-cognitive face-to-face encounter with the radical alterity of the Other as ethical, an appeal that commands a responsible response to the otherness of the Other. The paper presents discourses that address the conceptual roots of our environmental destruction. The first discourse is a critique of the Scientific Revolution of the Enlightenment that sees the shift from a medieval world-view to one structured along scientific-rational terms as the problematic. The second looks at our relationship to nature through the work of the Institute for Social Research (the first wave of the Frankfurt School) who saw the objectifying universal character of reason itself via the concept as having led to our domination of both outer and inner nature (ourselves). The paper brings Levinas’s development of singular infinite ethical responsibility into view providing a way to move beyond the impasses of the prior discourses as well as the perceived absence of ethics in poststructuralism/postmodernism theories. Levinas’s thought offers us an insight into the realm of the environmental movement as a political and institutional response to the cry of nature as a face-to-face event. The paper has implications for planning as well as policy directions. It does so by focussing on the establishment of the first wind turbine in an urban setting on Toronto’s lakeshore by the Toronto Renewable Energy Co-operative (TREC) as a model for the production/ownership/management of power in Ontario.

2006

‘Examining Sustainable Development Challenges and the Role of Company-Consultancy Partnering in Creating Value: The Case of the Canadian Mining Industry.’
Lindsay Parks
Vol. 12 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3458 (online)
This paper examines existing and emerging sustainable development challenges facing the Canadian mining industry. It explores how mining companies and consultancies can work together to address these challenges, and anticipate emerging challenges, in a manner that will simultaneously contribute to sustainable development and drive shareholder value. The sustainable challenges facing the mining industry are ever-changing; as a result, interviews were conducted as the primary source of qualitative information collection. Eight mining industry professionals and nine consultants were interviewed. The interview finding identified several current and emerging sustainable development challenges facing the mining industry. These included: improving stakeholder engagement, increasing sustainable development performance disclosure, developing and implementing a sustainable development certification program, incorporating voluntary initiatives into company strategies, articulating the business case for sustainable development, addressing the challenges associated with developing nations, improving value chain management, incorporating sustainable development principles into mine closure plans, and managing and adapting to climate change. From the interview results, it is evident that the consultancies understand the sustainable development challenges facing mining companies and are on the forefront of anticipating emerging needs. The industry professionals and consultants agreed that the current needs exist not because the consultants fail to recognize their existence, but rather because both the companies and consultancies lack the capabilities to effectively address all of the complexities involved in dealing with these issues. Sustainable development issues often necessitate quick, adaptable, long-term and dynamic solutions and the structure of many organizations, including mining companies and sustainable development consultancies, may not allow for the flexibility and creativity required to develop such solutions. Mining companies are currently focused on improving their reputation and legitimacy. Furthermore, in order to ensure future success and competitiveness, mining companies must also address the needs of developing nations, develop and integrate clean technologies into their operations, and facilitate the continual improvement of pollution prevention techniques. Developing the culture, capabilities, connectivity and commitments that support the principles of sustainable development will equip both mining companies and consultancies with the ability to address the unique and multidimensional challenges of sustainable development in a manner which will maximize the creation of sustainable value; thus, it is important that both mining companies and consultancies develop and nurture these four key areas of organization. From the current paper, it becomes evident that company-consultancy partnerships are an important strategy that will improve global progress towards sustainable development and drive shareholder value.

Colonial natures? Wilderness and culture in Gwaii Haanas National Park reserve and Haida heritage site
Susanne Porter-Bopp
Vol. 12 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3458 (online)
National parks in Canada have never only been about camping and wilderness preservation. Instead these parks are hubs of political, cultural, economic, and biophysical interaction that are subject to diverse national meanings. In Canada, national park status gives the state more power to ensure environmental standards than any other provincial or federal legislation. In examining the ways in which nature is a target of changing forms of governmental intervention, I look at how national parks in Canada continue to manage lands, people and the idea of nature. One of the core ideas that continues to shape national park projects is the explicit attempt to define a natural relationship between the nature contained within these places and Canadians. I argue that the creation of national parks involves the elaboration of a hegemonic governmental nationalism that is able to exercise powers of definition. A postcolonial environmental analysis is used to examine the nineteen-year struggle leading up to the creation of Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site on Haida Gwaii, British Columbia and its aftermath. The example of South Moresby is distinct in the history of both wilderness battles and of national parks in Canada because of the use of nationalist and sovereignist strategies to stop unsustainable exploitation of an ancient temperate rainforest. In particular, I explore the ways in which the Haida Nation’s assertion of title throughout the struggle has inflected different aspects of Gwaii Haanas, including how its existence as a national park of two nations troubles conventional imaginings of national parks in Canada. The connections that I draw between nature, nation and colonialism on Haida Gwaii are the result of an interest in the ways in which colonialism continues to operate in and through state institutions and lands in Canada.

2005

‘Peri-urban Participation in Urban Watershed Management in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil’
Marcia Chandra
Vol. 11 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3458 (online)
This research paper explores the power transformations that have been and are occurring with the reconstruction of water management from traditional political scales to the watershed scale, and with the production of new institutional arrangements to control decision-making about water in São Paulo. In particular, I question: who has (or does not have) access to these new political spaces and what are the implications for the redistribution of power over water decision-making across geographic scales? I have attempted to answer these questions based on an exploratory case study of the Pinheiros-Pirapora Watershed Subcommittee (SCBH-PP), part of the RMSP watershed management framework that has been based on a model of deliberative democracy between representatives of ‘stakeholder’ groups for over a decade. As it is a legislated institution with decision-making powers, rather than solely forming a consultative body, and it is considerably more progressive through its inclusion of a wider group of stakeholders, the RMSP framework is an appropriate case from which to explore the effects of scale in participatory watershed management, particularly in terms of redistributing power between urban and peri-urban scales. An embedded case study of a highly polemic water conflict in a marginalized peri-urban town will highlight issues of representation and scale that limit the inclusivity and effectiveness of the watershed committee. The similarity of the RMSP socioeconomic geography to other metropolitan areas in Latin America (Aguilar and Ward 2003) means the exploratory nature of this research can uncover wider lessons or considerations that may be relevant to understanding dynamics within other participatory urban institutions in the region.

Privatization, Segregation and Dispossession in Western Urban Space: An Antiracist, Marxist-Feminist Reading of David Harvey
Punam Khosla
Vol. 11 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3458 (online)
Within the shifting geography of capitalist imperialist power, the war on the home front has become a critical line of battle. Western urban centres are more than empty landscapes for the enactment of global agendas. They actively contribute to the international ascendancy of neoliberalism and the bodies of women and people of colour within them are the front line of economic, political, social and ideological marginalization. This paper takes up the intersectionality of race, gender and class relations as they are located within, and shaped by, urban processes in the West. Looking through the lens of David Harvey's theory of the production of capitalist urban space and its conceptual links with Marx's 'primitive' accumulation in his recent work on imperialism, I present an initial proposal on the material basis of gender and 'race' exploitation. I further explore how this interacts with more fully elaborated theories of class in the Marxist tradition, and how together they shape and are shaped by Western urban spaces and places. Harvey's work is important, not because it speaks directly or comprehensively to racialized or gendered divisions but because it is a highly detailed Marxist theorization of urban space. I do not take Harvey's ideas simply at face value, but 'rub them' together with theoretical and historical work on racialization, imperialism, urbanism and gender. Thus I make some necessary modifications to Harvey's propositions. It is my thesis that ongoing accumulation by dispossession as a second mode of accumulation that operates in a dialectical relationship to the system of commodity production, is the material basis of persistent racialized and gendered divisions in society as a whole and at the urban scale in particular. Accumulation by dispossession has been ideologically subordinated by capitalism as part of its triumphalist discourse of progress and freedom. But in actuality, it is the expression of patriarchal and racist imperialism within and alongside capitalism. Its ongoing coercive and violent appropriations, spatial segregation, and privatizations displace the costs of capitalist accumulation for accumulation's sake onto gendered and racialized bodies, separating them from the economic, political and social fruits of the capitalist system. My secondary argument suggests three distinct, sometimes conflicted, yet intertwined logics of power within modern society: capitalist logic, which rests primarily on the interests of capitalist producers; territorial logic, which expresses the imperative to command space at all scales; and corporeal logic, a patriarchal and racist, bio-political and carceral drive to control and socially construct gendered and racialized bodies. Finally, I propose that we take seriously the warnings of academics and activists who caution that the term 'neoliberalism' has become so broad and all encompassing that it is losing its incisiveness. As critical thinkers we need to analytically separate the processes of neoliberalism from neoracism, neopatriarchy, and neo imperialism. By applying an understanding of accumulation by dispossession as the ongoing basis of these latter configurations, and a renewed influence on capitalist commodity production, we can move past the polarized disciplinary landscapes of academic inquiry and segregated progressive politics that have resulted from a lack of precision in our analysis.

Constructing a Foundation for Change: The Ecosystem Approach and the Global Imperative on Toronto’s Central Waterfront
Jennefer Laidley
Vol. 11 No. 3 ISSN 1702-3458 (online)
This paper explores the micro-level politics involved in the processes of planning Toronto’s Central Waterfront in the period between the mid-1980s and the early 2000s. Using a conceptual framework that reviews and integrates ideas from growth machine literature as well as urban regime, regulation and globalization theories, the paper sets current waterfront development efforts in a theoretical context through which they can be understood as a 21st-century strategy for capital accumulation. In order to understand the ways in which Toronto’s waterfront has come to be mobilized to accommodate the imperatives of global economic and spatial restructuring, this paper takes an historical approach, reviewing waterfront planning activities undertaken in Toronto in the past twenty years. A new and novel “ecosystem approach” to waterfront planning was adopted in this period which, through its ability to both encompass and conceal a range of meanings, allowed its proponents to accommodate a variety of historical problems that had impeded waterfront development. This paper demonstrates that, in so doing, this approach set the stage for the elite pursuit of world city status through the development of Toronto’s Central Waterfront.

2004

The Changing Face of Non-Traditional NGO Governance: The Case of the Chinmaya Rural Primary Health Care and Training Centre (CRTC), India
Lisa Diniz
Vol. 10 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
Nonprofit literature suggests that non-governmental organizations (NGOs), even those that intentionally want to maintain a collectivist structure, tend to adopt bureaucratic governance features when subject to growth and accountability from funders (Handy, Kassam and Ranade, 2000). The 'The Chinmaya Rural Primary Health Care and Training Centre' (CRTC), in India, is an exception as it chooses to maintain its collectivist structure despite its rapid growth, and its reliance on international funding. As a collectivist structure, it has developed a space that allows for its staff and constituents to take a more active role in its governance, departing from traditional governance that relies on trustees or boards (Smillie and Hailey, 2001). Garreth Morgan's principles of holographic design (1986) is used to explain CRTC's overall organizational structure that allows for inclusive governance mechanisms. By critically examining governance at CRTC for generalizations that can apply to other rural-development NGOs, this paper argues that it is possible for rural-based NGOs to develop non-traditional forms of governance by deliberately maintaining a collectivist structure. This widens the traditional governance equation to include staff and constituents with direct implications on the traditional functions of the board. The paper concludes with the 'Dynamic Holographic Collectivist Governance Model.' The model is neither comprehensive nor inflexible and is designed for generic adaptability by practitioners to suit their particular environmental needs.

Planning for Greener Development: Conservation Development and Landon Bay East
Donna Doyle
Vol. 10 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This paper has been abbreviated from the original submission. This paper explores some of the impacts associated with current patterns of suburban and rural residential development, how we arrived at this point, and some initiatives that are being put forward to address our current residential land use patterns. In particular, conservation development (design) is examined in detail. Its principles are founded on the work of Ian McHarg's "design with nature"philosophy, whereby the landscape and natural features form the framework for where and what we build. This is in contrast with the more common method of residential development, an approach based more on Le Corbusier's ideals of razing a site to create a "clean slate"from which to work and ...take control and decide in what direction the forthcoming battle is to be waged"(Le Courbusier, 1996: 369). Landon Bay East, a residential development located in Eastern Ontario, east of Kingston, is used as a case study to further explore conservation development in an implemented form. Landon Bay East is a 160-acre subdivision that contains a 65-acre nature preserve within an area identified as an Area of Natural and Scientific Interest by the province and, more recently, as an International Biosphere Reserve (one of twelve in Canada) designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). It is examined both as an example of conservation development and in the larger context of "sustainable development". The broad areas of process and outcome examined in this development are: physical form and environment; community and social context; the planning process, and; economic and marketing issues. Following the case study, there is an overview of some of the issues that arose during the detailed investigation of conservation development and Landon Bay East. This section not only points out barriers but also proposes suggestions for addressing them. The suggestions are based on the need for changes in multiple areas including: regulation reform and accessibility to new options; communal sewage; coordination of public and nongovernmental resources; developer reform; public education and stewardship; land trusts and conservation easements, and; monitoring programs. The paper concludes that conservation development may offer a viable solution to addressing problems inherent in our current patterns of residential land use development, but must be used in conjunction with other tools. The framework for a comprehensive program in Ontario is not yet present and barriers will need to be addressed before this type of development can proceed on more than an individual site basis.

Pollution Prevention Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Metal Finishers
Meenaz Hassanali
Vol. 10 No. 3 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
The recent incorporation of pollution prevention provisions into environmental legislation are leading companies large and small – alike to work towards developing and implementing pollution prevention practices. In order to respond to the challenges of pollution prevention within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this paper analyzes pollution prevention practices incorporated by four SMEs in the Metal Finishing Sector to gain insights into why and how they embraced the concept of pollution prevention. A qualitative research study was conducted to obtain viewpoints of SME representatives on the challenges and benefits they encountered during the implementation of pollution prevention practices, while exploring the incentives that prompted them to implement proactive measures. The data compiled for the analysis were gathered through a Questionnaire provided to the Environmental Managers of SMEs, and from semi-structured interviews with them. According to the SME representatives, their top three incentives for implementing P2 practices were: 'Improve Environmental Performance', 'Knowledge of Benefits' (e.g. cost reductions), and 'Regulatory Pressure'. Not only did the participants link pollution prevention practices to their obvious benefits to the environment, but also recognized the value-added benefits of such practices to the business bottom line. Furthermore, the experiences of four SMEs suggest that their top two challenges for implementing P2 practices are 'Unavailability of Technology' and 'Longer Payback Periods'. Major findings indicate that SMEs within the Metal Finishing Sector had unique interests and thus handled their pollution prevention activities differently. All the participating SMEs had implemented pollution prevention measures to some extent. However, their methods and approaches varied due to differences in company size, their management practices, unique culture and behavior, availability of knowledge, and financial capabilities of each SME metal finisher.

Freeing Spirit: Life Epics and the Deindustrialization of Death
Mara Heiber
Vol. 10 No. 4 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
There is a disconnection in North American culture from the naturalness of death. This disconnection impedes the spiritual process undergone when dying. This spiritual process is necessary to fully complete the sacred journey of life. The denaturalization of death in North American culture is a direct result of the industrialization of life. The disassociation of death embedded in the psyches of North Americans manifests itself as a spiritual crisis, often arising during the dying trajectory. Hospitals, the institutions which carry the mandate of caring for the ill and dying in North American culture, are ill equipped to handle this crisis. Residential Hospices were created to provide viable alternatives to the dying, ensuring the priority of the spiritual and emotional care of their residents within their mandates. This paper explores Buddhist mindfulness practices, as well as aboriginal protocols, as ways to facilitate the spiritual crisis people often undergo when dying. Further, this paper suggests that Residential Hospices should go beyond facilitating spiritual needs of their residents and begin to proactively evoke spiritual transformations using Buddhist mindfulness practices and aboriginal protocols among its staff and members of their communities.

Ecology and Economy: A Systems Perspective
Andrew M. Losos
Vol. 10 No. 5 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of an economy from the perspective of systems and hierarchy theory. Economic systems are examined in two dimensions – the material and the functional – each of which is regarded as one aspect of a dual hierarchy. The issue of proper scaling is addressed. Throughout this examination, efforts are made to compare the organisation of economic systems with that of ecosystems. Finally, similarities and differences between the two are discussed.

Salmon Tales: An Arts-Informed and Literary Inquiry into Salmon Farming in B.C.
Aileen E. Penner
Vol. 10 No. 6 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)

2003

The central thesis that I intend to address in this paper is that the rise of the modern, industrial city produced a plethora of particular, urban phenomena that have been recorded and interpreted in various ways, and in various literary and theoretical t
Kareem Webster
Vol. 18 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3548 (online)
This major paper examines the implications of urban planning with respect to the built environment and public participation. It specifically analyzes the racialization of urban space and spatialization of race in marginalized communities through a case study of Lawrence Heights, a social housing neighbourhood in Toronto. The aim of this research is to flesh out the theories and processes related to the construction of identities through race, space, and the importance of place. I argue that the poorly built environment and barriers to public participation have contributed to the substandard conditions in the neighbourhood, which, ultimately have led to the current revitalization process. This community has been plagued with issues of crime, a deteriorating infrastructure, and the stigmatization stemming from a low-income neighbourhood. These factors have compounded, resulting in a space that has been reproduced as degenerate. My research is concerned with the relationship between identity and space and the role that the implications of planning have played in cementing this connection.

Establishment of Seagrass Decline and Causative Mechanisms in Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua through use of Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Sediment Coring and Direct Visual Census
Monica J. Schuegraf
Vol. 9 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
Seagrass beds are declining in all ecosystem types around the world. Members of a community-based resource management project in Pearl Lagoon (RAAS, Nicaragua) initiated interest into the loss of seagrass in Pearl Lagoon. The desire was to know if and why seagrass beds have been disappearing from the shallow littoral zone throughout the entire 60 km long lagoon. The loss, in a region where human population is rapidly increasing, could have drastic affects for the local shrimp and fish industry as well as a loss of major feeding grounds for the West Indian manatee. The use of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to inform the development and execution of this project allowed the expansion from a high resolution study of a small area to include a low resolution study of the entire lagoon. Direct visual census via collaborative field work established the present distribution of seagrass beds. Visual census of seagrass beds obtained significant baseline information: (a) identification of the two species Ruppia maritima and Najas guadalupensis, (b) present locations of patches throughout the lagoon and (c) a rough measure of seagrass abundance. The results of semi-directive interviews were expected to provide a 30 year time course of seagrass abundance. Sediment coring for shells of a seagrass habitat-specialist gastropod species provided an empirical indicator of historical seagrass presence and enabled the determination of confidence limits around TEK responses. TEK definitively established that significant seagrass coverage has disappeared, perhaps to the extent of 75% over the last three decades. Interview responses and empirical evidence suggested that loss of seagrass patches is mainly in response to hurricane disturbances coupled with point (dredging) and non-point source (sedimentation) anthropogenic changes. While the grass might have been able to recover from each of these disturbances individually, the cumulative effect may have been fatal. The incorporation of TEK into an ecological study is essential in information poor areas which are often impoverished regions. The use of TEK provides otherwise unavailable information and through participation empowers local people.

Creating Affordable Housing in Toronto Using Public-Private Partnerships
Lara Griffin
Vol. 9 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This major paper explores observed trends in residential urban infill and intensification and the need for improved affordability in this type of development. Following detailed analysis of the affordability crisis within the City of Toronto, it is determined that strategies for improving the affordability of housing must be identified. Public-private partnerships are explored as a way to overcome the financial challenges that are preventing the construction of affordable rental housing. Through analysis of the City of Toronto's partnership program (Let's Build), this paper concludes that as long as senior government support for housing remains low, the use of intergovernmental and public-private partnerships will be the most realistic and effective way for municipalities to bridge the gap between local public resources and the costs of housing development.

The Same River Twice: Nature, Identity and the Canadian Landscape
Pauline Craig
Vol. 9 No. 3 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
http://fes.yorku.ca/files/outstanding_papers/additional/pauline-craig-title-page.pdf
T his Major Paper is offered in the context of an ongoing journey, several expeditions, concurrent passages. Traveling over, around and inside thoughts, words and lived experiences, it examines notions of wilderness and human relations with the natural world. Situated in the context of wilderness environments in Ontario, this paper is an account of contacts between the author and her home through literary representations, relationships, and embodiment. It is both a grasp and a gift in that it is an attempt to take hold of ideas and sensations, to make meaning, while at the same time offering glimpses into human perceptions of, and relationships with the natural world. In its form and content this paper presents disjunctures between theory and practice; self and other; linguistic practices and the idea/event of a journey; sensing/perceptions of the natural world and language. Here nature moves beyond popular definitions and assumptions to include ideas of a wilderness as actor, process, a state of mind, a realm of power, mystery, spirit, a relational Other. Some of the central questions inspired by and carried along this written journey are: Can perception/writing be anything besides a restructuring of the world? Is there wilderness within language, within perception? How does one perceive/represent/live supposed binaries like self and other, freedom and constraint, or belonging and abjection, bound up within self and within relationships? How does human embodiment as part of nature affect these relationships? How do we ask in respectful ways? How do we ask without probing?

Justice-To-Be-Done, Telling-Stories, Before-The-Birth-Of-The-Plot
Heather Lash
Vol. 9 No. 4 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This major paper is divided into three sections, which represent three approaches to one constellation of ideas: settlement services for refugees, narrative, and ethics. They are also three dimensions of one project: the preservation of the alterity of the other. Section One is a more formal academic essay outlining what the thinking of Emmanuel Levinas has to offer this project vis-à-vis settlement services in general. It does so by contrasting his ethics with the two main ethics that presently shape and inform settlement services in Toronto: Christianity and Marxism. Using Levinas' formulation of the 'height and humility' of the other as a motif, the discussion identifies how both these currents of thought over-narrativize and so collapse the alterity of refugees. It analyses how the ethical relation shows itself in stark relief in a hosting dynamic, and describes the uncanny position of the host/hostage which any member of the settlement community is in by virtue of her or his job. Asymmetry of the relation, proximity and incarnation, and politics and responsibility are central themes in a consideration of how behaviour toward refugees might differ starting from this new ethical orientation. Section Two is a discursive meditation on the use of arts practices with refugees, focusing on the notion of storytelling. Thinking around trauma, narrative, testimony, witnessing, autobiography and self-representation is explored and analysed. Here again, taking the preservation of radical alterity as the central project, Levinasian ethics are privileged in a discussion of Saying and the Said, the present/ce of the Same in synchronic time versus the diachronic time of the other, and language itself. The pivotal ideas see Levinas in dialogue with Jacques Derrida (in particular his analysis of hospitality) and Roger Simon. Psychotherapy and nature poetry also make appearances in this consideration of the intersubjective ethical relation. Section Three, performed in a prose/poetic voice, is an enactment of the type of 'de-narrativization' that the other two papers ultimately call for. Out of active commitment to the notion of embodiment, it is my own story of why I am devoted to refugee issues (why I am triggered to feel compassion and responsibility toward whom and what I do; the story of my own exile, my own home, my hauntedness and dispossession).

Integrating People And Nature In Urban Wilderness: Bringing Together Concepts From Ecological Planning, Design And Restoration To Address The Opportunities And Challenges Of An Urban Ecological Regeneration Project
Lisa Roberti
Vol. 9 No. 5 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
"This research paper examines the theories and principles of ecological planning, design and restoration as they apply to the development of a concept plan for a site located within the Rouge Park in the Greater Toronto Area. The paper outlines the theoretical and practical underpinnings used to analyze and assess the site, and develop appropriate recommendations. The disciplines on which this paper draws include: landscape ecology, ecological planning and design, ecological restoration, and public space planning. Concepts and guidelines from these disciplines are integrated into a plan, and accompanying recommendations. Both the plan and recommendations address the human and ecological components, and more importantly, their positive and successful interactions and connections on the site.

Odyssey of the Hyperreal (anti)Hero: A Couch Potato's Epic Pornosophy of Becoming
Karen Scottie
Vol. 9 No. 6 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This paper odysseys the narratives, images and information of my hyperreal environments. It chronicles my steady rise and fall from the intense, climactic, dazzling and ecstatic narratives of Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Cannonball Run, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Jaws and The Omen to the sudden realization in university that I am nothing but the embodiment of a post-structural non-self. Down and out without a graduate degree to my name I embark on an odyssey to cure my sense of being insignificant, invisible, of feeling like an extra. Beside me at the helm, as my hyperreal guru is Robert Altman's The Player.

Learning the Livelihoods Way: Understanding Rural Livelihood Sustainability in Northeastern Cambodia
Rebecca Kinakin
Vol. 9 No. 7 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
http://fes.yorku.ca/files/outstanding_papers/additional/rebecca-kinakin-title-page-toc.pdf
In Cambodia, as in rural areas worldwide, serious problems of increasing poverty, declining traditional livelihood activities, decreasing access to resources, and growing ecological destruction are necessitating new approaches to socio-economic development and conservation. Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) stands to play an important role in enhancing rural livelihood sustainability; however such programs and strategies are presently facing many challenges. The Sustainable Livelihoods (SL) approach has been linked to the better overall planning and implementation of activities, projects, and programs. Proponents of SL claim that it can facilitate a deeper understanding of rural dynamics and realities and, in turn, yield a wider reach for reducing poverty and enhancing social and ecological well-being. This paper explores: a) the use of a livelihoods approach as a way to increase understanding of rural livelihoods, and the factors that affect them, in less-known Mondulkiri province, northeastern Cambodia, and b) the implications of a livelihoods approach for CBNRM in Cambodia. It was found that the linking of CBNRM and SL has the potential to improve CBNRM practices, the deeper awareness and understanding brought by a livelihoods approach helping to ensure that CBNRM fits appropriately into the lives of people, as opposed to fitting people into CBNRM. And, although not a magic bullet, it does seem possible using a livelihoods approach to gain considerable insight into how to build sustainable rural livelihoods based on local people's meanings, experiences, and desires of livelihood, well-being, and sustainability.

Learning the Livelihoods Way: Understanding Rural Livelihood Sustainability in Northeastern Cambodia
Rebecca Kinakin
Vol. 9 No. 7 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
http://fes.yorku.ca/files/outstanding_papers/additional/rebecca-kinakin-appendix1.pdf
In Cambodia, as in rural areas worldwide, serious problems of increasing poverty, declining traditional livelihood activities, decreasing access to resources, and growing ecological destruction are necessitating new approaches to socio-economic development and conservation. Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) stands to play an important role in enhancing rural livelihood sustainability; however such programs and strategies are presently facing many challenges. The Sustainable Livelihoods (SL) approach has been linked to the better overall planning and implementation of activities, projects, and programs. Proponents of SL claim that it can facilitate a deeper understanding of rural dynamics and realities and, in turn, yield a wider reach for reducing poverty and enhancing social and ecological well-being. This paper explores: a) the use of a livelihoods approach as a way to increase understanding of rural livelihoods, and the factors that affect them, in less-known Mondulkiri province, northeastern Cambodia, and b) the implications of a livelihoods approach for CBNRM in Cambodia. It was found that the linking of CBNRM and SL has the potential to improve CBNRM practices, the deeper awareness and understanding brought by a livelihoods approach helping to ensure that CBNRM fits appropriately into the lives of people, as opposed to fitting people into CBNRM. And, although not a magic bullet, it does seem possible using a livelihoods approach to gain considerable insight into how to build sustainable rural livelihoods based on local people's meanings, experiences, and desires of livelihood, well-being, and sustainability.

Learning the Livelihoods Way: Understanding Rural Livelihood Sustainability in Northeastern Cambodia
Rebecca Kinakin
Vol. 9 No. 7 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
http://fes.yorku.ca/files/outstanding_papers/additional/rebecca-kinakin-appendix2.pdf
In Cambodia, as in rural areas worldwide, serious problems of increasing poverty, declining traditional livelihood activities, decreasing access to resources, and growing ecological destruction are necessitating new approaches to socio-economic development and conservation. Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) stands to play an important role in enhancing rural livelihood sustainability; however such programs and strategies are presently facing many challenges. The Sustainable Livelihoods (SL) approach has been linked to the better overall planning and implementation of activities, projects, and programs. Proponents of SL claim that it can facilitate a deeper understanding of rural dynamics and realities and, in turn, yield a wider reach for reducing poverty and enhancing social and ecological well-being. This paper explores: a) the use of a livelihoods approach as a way to increase understanding of rural livelihoods, and the factors that affect them, in less-known Mondulkiri province, northeastern Cambodia, and b) the implications of a livelihoods approach for CBNRM in Cambodia. It was found that the linking of CBNRM and SL has the potential to improve CBNRM practices, the deeper awareness and understanding brought by a livelihoods approach helping to ensure that CBNRM fits appropriately into the lives of people, as opposed to fitting people into CBNRM. And, although not a magic bullet, it does seem possible using a livelihoods approach to gain considerable insight into how to build sustainable rural livelihoods based on local people's meanings, experiences, and desires of livelihood, well-being, and sustainability.

Crying Wolf – Perceptions and Realities of Algonquin Park Wolves
Cameron Straughan
Vol. 9 No. 8 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
A multidisciplinary video documentary on Algonquin Park wolves was produced. Entitled Crying Wolf – Perceptions and Realities of Algonquin Park Wolves, the documentary used qualitative research techniques and mail-out surveys to compare how various interest groups value and perceive the wolves in Algonquin Park. These interest groups included Scientists, Environmentalists, Trappers, Loggers, Farmers, First Nations, and Tourism Operators. The documentary had four specific goals: 1) Identify preconceived biases and how these biases may differ between the aforementioned interest groups 2) Demonstrate the effectiveness, or lack there of, of the science community's ability to dispel these preconceived biases (i.e., demonstrate whether or not science communication has been effective) 3) Determine if interest groups have any shared values and perceptions regarding wolves 4) Compare how people perceive the wolf in both urban and rural communities, close to and far removed from the park. The documentary demonstrated that science communication had been ineffective. In fact, some groups chose their scientific facts based on their values, instead of the science impacting their values. The film also determined that, while people do not have a common value regarding wolves per se, there are higher level values that intersect. This suggested that a shared management plan should occur at a higher level, say habitat, as opposed to managing the wolves themselves. When rural and urban communities, close to and far removed from the park, were compared, profound differences in the way people value wolves were evident. In the end, the documentary proved to be an effective synthesis of the social, cultural, scientific, and communications issues that revolved around Algonquin Park wolves.

Tzedekah Tzedek and Tikkun Olam: Jusitice for Disabled Jews in the Synagogue
Lilith Finkler
Vol. 9 No. 9 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
Tzedekah (charity) tzedek (justice) and tikkun olam (social justice) are all elements of Jewish religious thought and practice. Members of the Jewish community sometimes view disability as related to charity. For example, when the need for a ramp is identified, congregants suggest a fundraiser. However, in order for disabled Jews to obtain justice, architectural adjustments must be accompanied by attitudinal changes. The rights of disabled persons must be conceived as human rights rather than as aspects of charity.

Joyce, Benjamin, and the Modern Metropolis
Alexandre Ouimet
Vol. 9 No. 10 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
The central thesis that I intend to address in this paper is that the rise of the modern, industrial city produced a plethora of particular, urban phenomena that have been recorded and interpreted in various ways, and in various literary and theoretical texts, and that these treatments can be arranged, compared, and contrasted to reveal a critical interpretation of the modern, urban condition. Although the growth of metropolises gave rise to a myriad of responses during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this study focuses on particular twentieth century responses to the city, namely, the writings of Walter Benjamin and James Joyce.

Here We Fight The Coldest War: Environmental science & feminist autobiography on the DEW Line
Heather C. Ducharme
Vol. 9 No. 11 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
The central thesis that I intend to address in this paper is that the rise of the modern, industrial city produced a plethora of particular, urban phenomena that have been recorded and interpreted in various ways, and in various literary and theoretical texts, and that these treatments can be arranged, compared, and contrasted to reveal a critical interpretation of the modern, urban condition. Although the growth of metropolises gave rise to a myriad of responses during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this study focuses on particular twentieth century responses to the city, namely, the writings of Walter Benjamin and James Joyce.

2002

The Unicorn's Bargain: The Gift and The Environment
Mark Dickinson
Vol. 8 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
"Gifting" or "gift exchange" is an economic practice carried out in cultures worldwide, from so called "archaic" times to the present day. Definitions vary: to some, gifting is a mirror image or a shadow of the current market economy. To others it is the very opposite - generalized, delayed, unreciprocated, unpredictable, both creative and destructive. This Area of Concentration considers the latter definition, and focuses on how gifting economies among human societies can reflect, involve, and merge with cycles within nature.

Opportunities and Constraints of Co-Management: Cases of the Buccoo Reef Marine Park and the Speyside Reefs Marine Park, Tobago
Farah Mukhida
Vol. 8 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
In order to understand co-management, the concept must be examined from both the community and government perspectives since its essence is embedded in a framework of co-operation between these two entities. While a commitment for co-operation is an integral component of co-management, it alone will not sustain it. Trust, openness, communication, a belief in the cause, as well as personal and group gain are all critical components of this management approach. The Buccoo Reef Action Group (BRAG) was formed in the middle of 1999. The Group emerged out of a joint research project among the Tobago House of Assembly (THA), the University of East Anglia, and the University of the West Indies. As a type of community-based organisation, BRAG sought to develop and implement projects related to the conservation and preservation of the Buccoo Reef Marine Park (BRMP), southwest Tobago, in a collaborative effort with the Department of Marine Resources and Fisheries, THA. Unfortunately, after the joint project ended, so did BRAG. This study examines the opportunities and constraints that a more participatory approach to management of the BRMP presented as well as explores why the potential for co-management was not realised. Moreover, with plans being created to establish a second marine protected area, the Speyside Reefs Marine Park (SRMP), along the northeast coast of the island, there is once again an opportunity for co-management - either informally or formally. The lessons learned from efforts aimed at increasing stakeholder involvement with regards to the BRMP could be influential in helping to ensure successful implementation and management of the SRMP. It is clear that management and conservation of marine natural resources and areas requires an integration and appreciation for both the arts and the sciences. A multidisciplinary approach that considers the cultural, social, economic, political, and ecological context of each situation is required thereby making the application of general frameworks difficult, but not impossible, so long as those frameworks remain flexible and those contexts are accounted for.

Compromising the Environment?: The Spruce Budworm, Aerial Insecticide Spraying, and the Pulp and Paper Industry in New Brunswick
Asaf Rashid
Vol. 8 No. 3 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
Continual growth of the New Brunswick's pulp and paper industry since the late 1920s eventually brought the industry into conflict with the eastern spruce budworm (Choristineura fumiferana). This paper explores the evolution of budworm management since the 1950s, through an examination of the justifications behind the chosen control strategy of aerial insecticide spraying and the development of these justifications over time; through an examination of the criticisms of the spray program and the forest management practices that were linked to it; and, through an analysis of the design of the proposed control program for assessing responses to past criticisms.

Planning for Diversity in the Global City: The Toronto Case
Carol Altilia
Vol. 8 No. 4 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This paper examines the contemporary treatment of difference as "diversity" and explores its articulation through planning. The utility of this approach to difference is set in the urban context to illuminate the role of diversity as a strategic asset in the local consolidation of global economic processes. The qualitative research reported here is a study of the City of Toronto's recently developed diversity initiative as expressed in the recommendations of the Task Force on Community Access and Equity. An evaluation of the efficacy of the City's Action Plan is provided with special focus on the main feature of the Plan, the city wide Community Advisory Committees. Their general role in facilitating inclusion and their specific impact on the planning function is considered. Assessment of the Plan finds it consistent with the dominant treatment of difference as "diversity" reflective of the competitive, corporatized city in which it has been developed, offering minimal opportunity to open political space for marginalized groups. The advisory committee approach to community participation can not only be seen as having limited impact, but also as containing and/or fracturing resistance. However, the contribution of such state-sponsored planning for inclusion is clear when it is set against the broader constellation of action in the social justice movement. The Plan's potential lies in the possibility of iterative developments pressed by forces inside as well as outside of the bureaucracy. The conclusions suggest that such initiatives are one aspect of multifaceted, cross-sectoral progress towards radical democracy.

Representing Science Representing Nature
Adam J. Auer
Vol. 8 No. 5 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This paper examines the recursive and highly productive dialectic between the constitutive effects of science as a social praxis and as the image of a very unique kind of social praxis. I argue that dominant images of modern science engender a dangerous logic of reification though their appropriation of narratives of objectivity that claim a methodological path to unmediated or "natural" knowledge. Representations of science that fail to recognise their specificity as representations by abstracting human agency from the processes of representing science and scientifically representing nature, reify unexamined ideological presumptions (about human and nonhuman nature, and about science itself) within the kinds of scientific representations of nature that these representations of science engender.

Animal Scents: Tracking the Betrayal of Animality Otherwise with/in Merleau-Ponty, Derrida and Levinas
Lee Laskin
Vol. 8 No. 6 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This book is a guide for tracking an animal in a text or in a jungle. It offers a non-dichotomous, non-totalizing, primordially ethical relation of self to animal. A relation where the self is not radically detached, disinterested and alienated from a marginalized and valueless animal other. Out of this work emerges alternative 'conceptions' of animal alterity. Conceptions where the self is fully imbedded in and has responsibility to the other, yet does not (only) appropriate its alterity into conception. Here I explore the structure, economy and dynamics of species differentiation between the human and the animal, within the realm of knowledge, and beyond, with the goal of capturing the animal otherwise-as uncapturable. The animal I am tracking recedes like the horizon upon approach, yet it could not be more intimately close to me. To help us track the trace and scent of our messianic quarry I draw on the works of Merleau-Ponty, Levinas, and Derrida.

Unearthing Montreal's Municipal Water System: Amalgamating and Harmonizing Urban Water Services
Marc-Antoine Fleury
Vol. 8 No. 7 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
In December 2000, the National Assembly of Quebec adopted numerous bills that would lead to a reconfiguration of the municipal territorial organization. The amalgamation process modifies long-standing patterns of urban governance. Within the metropolitan region, Montreal's municipal water system has been directly affected by the changes. For the first time in its 200 year-old history, the entire municipal drinking water and sanitation infrastructure is brought under a single municipal administration: the new City of Montreal now comprising the 28 cities that used to exist on the island. This paper looks upon the operational, financial and environmental aspects of drinking water delivery that have been modified following the amalgamation.

Deconstructing the Four Pillars of the Climate Change Debate: A Critical Review of the Scientific, Economic, Political, and Ethical Dimensions
Paul Davison
Vol. 8 No. 8 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
Four major discourses within the climate change are identified and explored in this paper. First and foremost, there is the scientific discourse of climate change. The prevailing themes in this discourse are complexity, uncertainty, risk, and ultimately, the authority and legitimacy of science-based policy making. Secondly, there is the economic discourse, where the climate change issue is framed in terms of the relative costs and benefits of mitigation vs. adaptation, and command-and-control approaches are compared to free market approaches. Next, there is the political discourse, characterized by issues of cooperation between States, regime formation, and international law vis-à-vis climate change, where realist conceptions of power, based on military and economic strength, are challenged by post-structuralist theories, which stress the roles of knowledge, and persuasion in international politics. Lastly, there is the ethical discourse of climate change. Here, the issue is usually framed in terms of burden sharing, rights and responsibilities, historical accountability, and ability to pay. While it is possible to understand each of these discourses in isolation, the analysis undertaken here critically examines each of these discourses in detail and explores the connections between them. Two key findings emerge from the analysis. Firstly, there is the recognition that a purely objective analysis of the climate change issue is neither possible, nor desirable. Secondly, each of the four discourses are intimately connected to one another; thus, the science of climate change cannot be divorced from the political context in which it is deployed, just as economic analyses of the issue cannot be understood without also considering the ethical dimensions of the various assumptions involved in any such analyses.

2001

Ecohealth and Displacement: A Case Study of Resettlement and Return in Ethiopia
Sarah Elizabeth Erlichman
Vol. 7 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This Major Paper is based on field research conducted in the northern highlands of Ethiopia investigating the situation of farmers returned from resettlement in southwest Ethiopia under a government program that resettled 800,000 people in the late 1970s and mid-1980s in an attempt to counter environmental threats to food security. The returnees fled ill-health and conflict with local people in resettlement areas and returned to their places of origin. The paper explores the impact of displacement on a broadly defined concept of "ecohealth" in terms of environmental change over three historical periods: pre-resettlement, resettlement, and return.

Biodiversity Conservation in Agroecosystems: A Comparison of Surface-dwelling Beetle Diversity in Various Shade Coffee Production Systems in Costa Rica
Susan Hall
Vol. 7 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
Beetle diversity was determined in six coffee agroecosystems representing a spectrum of structural complexity including (in increasing order) a chemical free site without shade, Poró (Erythrina poeppigiana), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus deglupta), Amarillón (Terminalia amazonia), Banana (Musa spp.), and a control site at Los Cusingos Neotropical Bird Sanctuary. At each site beetles were collected using pitfall traps while leaf litter quantities and soil properties were recorded. Beetles were not related to structural complexity per se but were more strongly affected by soil and leaf litter characteristics. They showed relatively strong co-relations to increased leaf litter, increased soil fertility and decreased soil compaction.

Natural Systems and Alternative Urban Development
Marc McClean
Vol. 7 No. 3 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
The preservation of the Oak Ridges Moraine has forced an unprecedented examination of the ramifications of traditional urban growth patterns on natural systems. In 2000 and 2001, the focus of the debate became the relatively narrow corridor of undeveloped land that runs through the Town of Richmond Hill linking more undisturbed halves of the Moraine to the west and east. Using this 'ground zero' as a springboard, this paper, informed by the tenets of landscape ecology, examines the planning framework as a source of, and possible solution to, the ecological issues engendered by the forces of urban growth in the GTA. The planning framework is defined to include the legal framework, the policy framework and the effect of the Ontario Municipal Board, which interprets the planning framework in arbitrating land use decisions to finality. The planning framework will be revealed as largely pro-growth, inhibiting ecologically innovative approaches to land use, such as is needed presently on the Moraine. It concludes that an ecologically comprehensive and legally binding policy framework would allow more ecologically informed and innovative land use decisions, by mitigating the pro-growth effects of the legal structure and by providing appropriate direction for the OMB. Interestingly, this paper was completed only a few months before the Ontario Government introduced and then passed the Oak Ridges Moraine Conservation Act, a measure that went beyond anything this author would have predicated possible from the government of the day. A remarkable example of the effect public protestation can have on governments in power.

Voices Telling: Stories Rising from a Place Called Wiikwedong/Kettle Point
Barry Milliken
Vol. 7 No. 4 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
The primary purpose of this endeavour is to tell a story of the community called Wiiwkwedong, or Kettle Point. A main premise of the telling is that story -or narrative voice - emerges from the natural environment through a reciprocation of personal memory and dream and more deeply of blood, or spirit memory. This concept in emergence of Story is significant for its fundamental difference from the positivist Western paradigm of knowledge and learning with relation to environment. The program's purpose, then, is to articulate a re-emergence of some of the lost relationships between the human community and the land known as Wiiwkwedong.

Planning for Appropriate Recreation Activities In Mountain Environments: Mountain Biking in the Canadian Rocky Mountains
Jan Mosedale
Vol. 7 No. 5 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
The Canadian Rocky Mountains offer spectacular settings and the necessary topographic features to be conducive to mountain biking. Calgary, one of the major population centres of the region, which has a proportion of mountain bike riders, is situated close to a high concentration of National Parks and other protected areas. The protected areas are therefore an important component of the local and regional outdoor recreation system. However, recreation can impose considerable stress on the parks ecosystems and is often incompatible with their mandate. The study combined the Visitor Activity Management Process with the Appropriateness Model in order to focus on policies regarding recreation and mountain biking in the Canadian Rocky Mountains and to offer a situational analysis, an examination of management strategies and specific recommendations.

The Bicycle and Urban Sustainability
David Tomlinson
Vol. 7 No. 6 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This paper presents a rationale for promoting bicycles for basic transportation, in the context of global efforts to achieve more sustainable urban development. The importance of urban transportation systems, and the negative impacts of automobile dependence are discussed. An empirical approach to developing local sustainable transportation initiatives is presented, based on comparative study of North American and European municipalities that have successfully promoted alternatives to automobile use. The general conclusion is that the overriding freedom of movement of motorists must be restrained as infrastructure improvements that support alternative modes are implemented.

2000

Landscapes of Environmental Injustice: The Environmental Justice Movement in Context
Emily S. Chan
Vol. 6 No. 1 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
In this paper, the environmental justice movement is introduced through a study of its historical context, and the structures of environmental, economic and social disparities in North America. The principles of environmental justice and its primary community organizing strategies are addressed to illustrate how environmental justice is alternative to mainstream environmentalism. Also discussed are some of the tensions and challenges within the environmental justice movement. Contrary to some arguments in published literature, I argue that the movement for environmental justice is not a branch of mainstream environmentalism, but a movement in its own right.

Regional Policy and EU Accession in the Czech Republic 1997 - 1999
Hannah Evans
Vol. 6 No. 2 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This paper examines the formulation of regional policy and the creation of a Regional Development Plan in the Czech Republic during the period of 1997 - 1999. The regional policy and planning process occurred within the larger dynamic of the Czech Republic's application for membership in the European Union, and the paper considers the application of European Union partnership principle in the regional planning process. Analysis focuses on whether this process, required by the EU, enhanced democratic decision-making in the Czech Republic.

Spatial Practices: Architecture, Planning and Citizenship in Mexico City
Antonio Ignacio Gómez-Palacio del Río
Vol. 6 No. 3 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This study questions the view that privileges planning professionals with the right and responsibility of building the city. Instead, it brings social movements, everyday practices and a cultural politics to the foreground of a study of architecture understood simultaneously as a profession, a built form and a way of life. The study of spatial practices in Mexico City, in conjunction with a reading of Lefebvre, presents the concept of space as a potential site for articulating a social/ecological project through planning and architecture in light of a democratisation of the planning process and a politicisation of urban spaces.

Re/Producing 'Normalcy': Bodies, Everyday Social Practices and Photography
Teresa (Tracy) C. Luciani
Vol. 6 No. 4 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
As the white, female, able-body(ies) comes to the written and visual fore in mainstream academic, political, social and cultural circles in Euro-North-America, it is crucial at this particular historical moment to attend to how the fore needs that which it excludes, how the fore becomes normalized on an everyday basis. By tracing various social processes/practices that normalize and disavow particular bodies and practices, what begins to unfold is an understanding of how our everyday social practices may both re/produce and interrupt normalizing practices. Through an interweaving of visual and textual theories, of photography and written words, I attempt to make sense out of how bodies become re-presented and theorized, normalized and marginalized, and how bodies may disrupt and offer new and alternative possibilities through photography and written words.

Genome Presence: The Work of a Diagnostic/Iconic Image
Aryn E. Martin
Vol. 6 No. 5 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
This paper is an exploration the work of a potent image: the human-instrumental-material work required to produce a karyotype, as well as the work done by the image, both in clinical settings, and as a public emblem of "the human genome". In keeping with theoretical accounts of the visual in science studies, I conduct an ethnographic exploration of the resolution of ambiguous bodies into their genomic portrait. Next, I leave the specific context of the image's production to speculate on the existence of "genome presence", which, much like "fetal presence", relies on public consumption of newly visible objects.

Active Citizenship Reviving and Extending Democratic Practices
Navin Ajay Nayak
Vol. 6 No. 6 ISSN 1702-3548 (online) ISSN 1702-3521 (print)
Contending that our current liberal understanding of politics is exclusive and unresponsive, this paper explores the possibilities for reviving and extending democratic practices through a renewed understanding of citizenship. In direct opposition to the passive and individualistic theory of citizenship presented in the work of John Rawls, a theory of active citizenship is retrieved through a critical synthesis of the unique works of Hannah Arendt and Chantal Mouffe. Active citizenship is presented as a practice that is anti-foundational, anti-essentialist, conditioned by pluralism and antagonism, and necessarily active. This paper was initially part of a larger project that explored how active citizenship would necessarily call into question our practice of environmental politics, particularly interrogating environmentalism's reliance on ecology and the ontological and epistemological privileges granted to Western science, arguing that democratizing environmentalism requires constructing it primarily as an ethical-political dilemma rather than a managerial-technological one.

1999

Just So Stories: Cultural Narratives and the Politics of Solidarity in support of the Labrador Innu
Jennie Barron
Vol. 5 No. 1 ISBN 1-55014-387-5
This paper is an inquiry into the politics of solidarity, involving the Innu First Nation of Labrador (Nitassinan) and their international network of non-Native activist supporters. I describe the mobilization of supporters from environmental, peace, church and Aboriginal rights constituencies, and the bases of their political affinity. I show how Innu support is spatialized across geographic and social distance. I explore historical (Euro/Canadian) cultural narratives about 'Native' people and the North in an effort to understand the ways these narratives construct Innu political identities and shape the discourse and interventions of Innu supporters.

Just So Stories: Cultural Narratives and the Politics of Solidarity in support of the Labrador Innu
Jennie Barron
Vol. 5 No. 1 ISBN 1-55014-387-5
This paper is an inquiry into the politics of solidarity, involving the Innu First Nation of Labrador (Nitassinan) and their international network of non-Native activist supporters. I describe the mobilization of supporters from environmental, peace, church and Aboriginal rights constituencies, and the bases of their political affinity. I show how Innu support is spatialized across geographic and social distance. I explore historical (Euro/Canadian) cultural narratives about 'Native' people and the North in an effort to understand the ways these narratives construct Innu political identities and shape the discourse and interventions of Innu supporters.

Nature As Autobiography: Healing the Earth-Body and the Human-Body with Holistic Medicine
Tonia-Lynn Chahley
Vol. 5 No. 2 ISBN 1-55014-387-5
This major paper constitutes an experiment in form and content that is informed by notions of holism and interconnection as they are expressed in ecofeminism and holistic medicine. Using my autobiography as a vehicle, I have attempted to create a narrative that speaks to the connections that exist between the earth-body and the human-body. Having returned from Zimbabwe both physically ill and soul-sick, I sought solace in holistic healing. On one level, this journey led me to a greater understanding of the connections that exist between the health of my body and the health of the environment that surrounds me. On another, this journey also led me to a greater understanding of the healing power of the environment, both as it informed the treatments I was receiving, and as it allowed the discovery of a space where I could reconcile myself to the happenings of the world I live in. The following excerpt is taken from the first and second movements of my major paper. Two Black Threads is a snapshot of the entirety of my thesis. It traces themes of connection to ancestry and earth, suffering and spirit, and healing through embodied writing. The second movement, Broken Open, constitutes the beginning of my journey. It is comprised of a series of vignettes that explore the time I spent in Zimbabwe, and how my relationships with the land and its people uncovered a new and vulnerable way of being – a way of being that left me painfully open and bare when I returned home to Canada.

Questioning Images, Imagining Questions: Photography and Pedagogical Process
Stephanie Conway
Vol. 5 No. 3 ISBN 1-55014-387-5
"Questioning images, imagining questions" provides a self-reflexive analysis of what it means to be a gendered subject of the teaching process within the context of an alternative high school. It is implicitly and explicitly a critique of traditional schooling methods and an exploration into the problems and possibilities of "critical" pedagogy. In the class "Critical Photography and Media", we sought to understand how particular subject positions are culturally-produced within complex configurations of knowledge/power. This paper attempts to reveal the "non-innocence" of particular ways of seeing and not seeing, including how different knowledges are taken-up and performed in the classroom, broadly-defined.

1998

The Iarogenic Effects Of Environmental Management: Servicing a Needy Nature?
Dean Louis Bavington
Vol. 4 No. 1 ISBN 1-55014-353-0
Contemporary environmental discourse is dominated by a managerial ethos, which casts nature as a needy client requiring the services of experts. This paper critically examines the philosophy behind managerial approaches toward the environment, and explores some of the deleterious effects produced by its universal application. Expanding on the work of Ivan Illich and John McKnight, the paper argues that there is a strong tendency for environmental management to become Iatrogenic-producing - what it is designed to prevent or ameliorate. Through the use of various examples from social and ecological science, Iatrogenic effects of environmental management are explored and the discovery and servicing of nature's "needs," under the management model, is questioned.

Off The Treadmill
Dagmar S. Boettcher
Vol. 4 No. 2 ISBN 1-55014-345-9
On June 14, 1993, the Ontario Provincial government, under the leadership of Premier Robert Rae, passed into law the Social Contract Act, 1993. The intent of the legislation was to achieve significant savings in public sector expenditures in the Province of Ontario through prescribed reduction targets. This paper is based upon ten interviews conducted between November 1996 and February 1997 with employees impacted by the Social Contract Act. Using the narrative method, the paper explores the definitions and meanings of work and leisure experienced by the participants, whether these meanings shifted with the experience of the Social Contract Act, and how the experience of time off impacted the meaning and experience of work.

On The Question Of Origins: Medical Scientific Response and the Pathos of AIDS
Michael Bresalier
Vol. 4 No. 3 ISBN 1-55014-355-7
This paper considers the investments medical science has in the question of the origins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). From two hypotheses posited on the conditions of possibility of the question of origins in medical science, the paper moves to analyze how the question invokes and defines medical scientific responses to the epidemic, instantiated certain practices and produces particular effects that bear on how the pathos of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is made intelligible and managed. These problems are addressed through a specific focus on the assumptions, projections and reorientation's of the prevailing theory that HIV is of a zoonotic origin. If the method of this paper is to question the question of origins, the purpose in doing so is to raise for concern the ethicality of responses to the emergency of AIDS.

Tenure Reform For Ecologically And Socially Responsible Forest
Jessica Clogg
Vol. 4 No. 4 ISBN 1-55014-356-5
It is the premise of the paper that new property institutions to mediate the relationship between human communities and the forest are necessary to achieve socially and ecologically responsible forestry in British Columbia. The paper begins from the presumption that the incentive people have and the actions they take can be influenced by the rights granted through the tenure system. The paper explores options for tenure reform by focusing on various elements of the property rights bundle, including the comprehensiveness, exclusivity, duration, security and transferability of rights to forest lands. Based on the experiences of the small-scale forest managers interviewed in British Columbia, the paper concludes that wood lots and community forests are the tenure forms, which would provide the greatest incentives for ecologically, and socially responsible forestry.

Breast Implants As A Feminist Issue
Claire Farid
Vol. 4 No. 5 ISBN 1-55014-357-3
This paper argues that breast implants must be understood as having important implications for women's equality in Canadian society. An examination of discourses about female beauty and the institutional contexts of a patriarchal medical system and capitalist patriarchy support this argument. The author cautions that a feminist analysis of the breast implant issue must not be based either on a notion of the body as "nature" or of women as victims who do not make genuine choices to have breast implants.

Beyond An Autonomous Nature: Democratic Radical Environmentalism
Nick Garside
Vol. 4 No. 6 ISBN 1-55014-358-1
Using the contemporary environmental movement as an example, this paper explores the liberatory potentials opened up for environmentalism through Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe's radically democratic approach to politics. In particular, this paper looks at the radically controversial and dangerous act of politicizing nature. It argues that within the fragmented and potentially liberatory conditions of western society the act of politicizing nature, if done under the political umbrella of radical democracy, need not come at the cost of permanently reducing nature to a resource. Furthermore, this paper makes the equally controversial argument that for nature to be politicized, environmentalism must be disarticulated from ecology and re-articulated with other liberatory movements within the radical democratic rules of the game.

Sharing The Work, Sparing The Planet: Reduced Work Time, Overconsumption, and Ecological Sustainability
Anders Hayden
Vol. 4 No. 7 ISBN 1-55014-359-X
Reduced work time (RWT) has historically been sought as both a way to create jobs by better distributing available work, and as a way to improve quality of life by giving workers more time away from the job. Today, in response to evident ecological constraints on human activities, an ecological argument for RWT has also emerged. This paper outlines why RWT has a great deal of promise as part of an ecological vision which recognizes not only the importance of "efficiency" in our use of nature, but also the more challenging question of "sufficiency" which involves limiting our material aspirations. The paper also raises some complications, and suggests that RWT can be copied by a productivist vision based on the possibility and desirability of unlimited economic growth. Some tentative thoughts will be provided on how the ecological merits of this promising idea can be strengthened and the pitfalls of productivism avoided in pursuit of a green vision of working less, consuming less, and living more. Note: This paper has been expanded into a book of the same title. It is found in the new Faculty Books section.

Locating Innu Political And Environmental Discourse
Larry Innes
Vol. 4 No. 8 ISBN 1-55014-360-3
This paper is an exploration of contemporary Innu political and environmental discourse in Nitassinan/Labrador. Historically, the Innu have not played an active role in Euro-Canadian public discourse. Decisions by the dominant society to partition Innu territory into separate provincial jurisdictions, exploit its natural resources and to settle the Innu into government-sponsored communities have largely been made without Innu involvement or consent. Over the past 20 years, however, Innu spokespeople have actively engaged in public, political, and environmental discourse within Euro-Canadian institutions. Innu statements about their land, their rights and their way of life have enabled them to establish a distinct political identity within the larger universe of public political discourse in Canada. This paper examines, from a theoretical perspective, some of the ways in which this has been achieved.

An Integrated Human Ecosystem Perspective: Lessons Learned in India
Rozmin Jaffer
Vol. 4 No. 9 ISBN 1-55014-361-1
Two dimensions of inequity, namely, gender inequity and poverty, contribute to conditions of ill health. The current models of health, specifically, biomedicine, indigenous systems of medicine and health promotion, come short in meeting the complex and comprehensive health needs required. The Integrated Human Ecosystem Perspective (IHE) brings together aspects of biomedicine and indigenous systems of medicine under the purview of a social justice framework as best accommodated by health promotion. Within the IHE perspective, biomedicine contributes its skills and knowledge of human biology and disease; indigenous systems of medicine integrate the socio-cultural perspective and health promotion provides the socio-political and ecological tenets. The health-enhancing tenets from the three models are brought together into a singular perspective that should prove more effective in improving the health of the population.

The Information Highway: Metaphor, Technology, and Nature
Noa Lior
Vol. 4 No. 10 ISBN 1-55014-362-X
In Western culture we draw many of our conceptual metaphors from the realm of technology. This paper analyzes one of the most recent and pervasive of these technological metaphors, the "information highway." The metaphor's origin and rapid rise to widespread popularity are traced. The paper illustrates how thoroughly the language of physical geography pervades the vocabulary of the Internet (a communications technology), and how the highway metaphor structures the way that the Internet is conceptualized. It then explores the ways in which the "information highway" metaphor shapes our understanding not only of the Internet, but also of communication, learning, and knowledge. The assumptions and entailments embedded in the metaphor are examined, as are some of the metaphor's more important implications for our values and for our behavior. Alternative metaphors are discussed.

A Brief History Of Marine Fisheries Conservation And Management
Sheryl C. Lusk
Vol. 4 No. 11 ISBN 1-55014-363-8
It may be argued that, since the latter half of the nineteenth century, the field of fisheries conservation and management in North America has been shaped and molded by periodic crises which have, in turn, induced periods of exploration. These periods of exploration have often resulted in fundamental adjustments to the then-dominant fisheries management paradigm. At present, it may be possible that the field of fisheries conservation and management is experiencing a paradigm shift as a result of persistent crises in the global fisheries. It remains to be seen, though, whether these new theories and ideas will be capable of ultimately propelling such a shift towards a fundamentally different way of interacting with the natural environment.

Disturbing Nature: Ecological Restoration and the Ethics of Change
Laurie Beth Miller
Vol. 4 No. 12 ISBN 1-55014-364-6
A broad examination of the idea of ecological restoration seeks to encompass the difficult terrain underlying an oftentimes too optimistic (and possibly naïve) pursuit. This paper follows a narrative structure, which centres around the dilemmas posed by the attempt to use our beliefs about nature as a guide to moral action. The importance of originary value and the distinction between fakes, forgeries and restorations are discussed. Finally, it is suggested that the only way to helpfully value the results of ecological restoration is to acknowledge their ambiguous ontological status between nature and culture.

Biotechnology: Influence within the United Nations Biosafety Protocol
Nancy Palardy
Vol. 4 No. 13 ISBN 1-55014-365-4
The nation-state has traditionally been viewed as the central, if not exclusive, actor in global politics. Industry, however, is increasingly acknowledged as a powerful and influential voice, particularly during the development of international environmental agreements. This paper focuses upon the biotechnology industry as an actor within global environmental politics and explores the participation of the biotechnology industry within the negotiations leading towards the establishment of a Biosafety Protocol pursuant to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Living Land: The Embedded Process of the Dene Storying
Andrew Preston
Vol. 4 No. 14 ISBN 1-55014-366-2
This paper attempts to explore the land-human dynamic in the specific context of the Dene — a Subarctic First Nation people living predominantly in the Mackenzie Valley region of the Northwest Territories who speak with a profound reverence for the land and its social, cultural, and economic significance to their lives. It is suggested that the depth of this connection is such that the Dene way of life (or storying) can be conceived of as a socially organized and recursively instantiated set of meaningful-practices/practiced-meanings that narrate a specific and purposeful "world," the whole of which exists as a continual process in relation to and embedded in the land. It is thus argued that the land is the context and field, means and medium, and ultimate purpose for the Dene storying.

Alternative Fuels In The Transportation Sector Of Ontario: Implications for the Petroleum Industry
Kirton Rodrigues
Vol. 4 No. 15 ISBN 1-55014-367-0
The gasoline automobile has dominated the transportation sector for most of the 20th century, and particularly since 1950 as its numbers have increased twelve-fold and its image of individual mobility, comfort and convenience has been enhanced. Under any plausible scenario, transportation energy demand will continue to increase into the foreseeable future and will likely maintain its dependence on petroleum fuels. If petroleum companies are to survive the future, they must diversify into energy companies with a stake in renewable, non-fossil energy sources. Recognizing the need for change, some companies have already taken the initiative through cooperative partnerships with renewable energy technologies. In the final analysis, the role of alternative transportation fuels in any sustainable transportation strategy will be determined by their economic and environmental performance.

The Coyote Came Back: The Return of an Ancient Song Dog in the Post-Colonial Literature and Landscape of North America
John Sandlos
Vol. 4 No. 16 ISBN 1-55014-368-9
The literary coyote is not new to North America, but was (and is) a key trickster figure in many Native mythologies spread throughout the continent. More recently, Coyote has been resurrected from a near-death (physically and culturally) at the hands of North America's colonial invaders. Indeed the mythological Coyote has lately flourished in poetry, fiction, and visual art and in the post-colonial literature of Native North America. This paper will trace the reappearance of Coyote on the literary and artistic landscape of the New World. It will also examine the social, cultural and ecological implications of a "trickster world" governed by the shifting and unpredictable personality of the mythic Coyote. In particular, the essay suggests that the trickster persona of the coyote offers a potent postmodern symbolism for the unruly and ungovernable nature of the non-human world.

1997

Condensed Articulations: Knowing, (T)heory, Praxis and Lived Experience
Ray Bennett
Vol. 3 No. 1 ISBN ISBN 1-55014-331-X
This paper expresses a series of explorations of theoretical knowings embodied in certain strands of feminist, poststructuralist, postmodern, and critical theories as they illuminate and may be illuminated by the ground of teaching practice in English language instruction and teacher education. At the same time, this paper is constituted by that series of explorations, in that the two participatory research projects and associated dialogues, art and graphics, reflections, narratives and juxtapositions have created the material body of this work.

Condensed Articulations: Knowing, (T)heory, Praxis and Lived Experience
Ray Bennett
Vol. 3 No. 1 ISBN ISBN 1-55014-331-X
This paper expresses a series of explorations of theoretical knowings embodied in certain strands of feminist, poststructuralist, postmodern, and critical theories as they illuminate and may be illuminated by the ground of teaching practice in English language instruction and teacher education. At the same time, this paper is constituted by that series of explorations, in that the two participatory research projects and associated dialogues, art and graphics, reflections, narratives and juxtapositions have created the material body of this work.

Historical Consciousness And Sense Of Place: Finding the Connections
Tal Harel
Vol. 3 No. 2 ISBN 1-55014-332-8
This paper is a modified version of the 3rd chapter of the author's major paper. It explores the role that historical consciousness and one's understanding of local history play in linking individuals and collectives with place. The difference between history and memory are also examined.

The Content And Context Of Ecological Restoration: An Exploration of Reformist and Transformative Environmentalism
Jeremy Todd Lundholm
Vol. 3 No. 3 ISBN 1-55014-333-6
The ecological restoration movement is based on the premise that people can intervene in natural processes to help repair damaged land. This inquiry is an exploration of forms of restoration that differ in the degree to which they challenge the current social order. The restoration program in Hamilton, Ontario is evaluated against criteria for successful restoration. Barriers to success in this case are linked to a generalized "crisis of modernity".

Wanita-Wanita Mandiri (Independent Women): Possibilities and Constraints in Women's Microenterprise in Banding, Indonesia
Kelly O'Neill
Vol. 3 No. 4 ISBN 1-55014-334-4
In international development literature, much has been made of the potential of micro and small scale ventures to fill the void left by chronic under- and unemployment in the so-called informal economy. Based on a case study of the working lives of twelve self-employed women in urban Indonesia, the paper critically examines female microenterprise from the following perspectives: religion; education; culture; economics; class; and government. The paper seeks to render women's subsistence work more visible to planners, researchers and policy makers alike.

Popular Education: An Alternative Strategy for Health Promotion with Women
Jennifer Ann Ross
Vol. 3 No. 5 ISBN 1-55014-335-2
This paper discusses the role of health in society, and the struggle to determine the fundamental meaning of health and its implications for the practice of health promotion. Particular emphasis is placed on the new social movements, particularly the women's health movement, and their interactions with state-sponsored health care systems.

From Orality To Electronicity: A New Unity with a New Nature?
Marek Swinder
Vol. 3 No. 6 ISBN 1-55014-336-0
The main focus of this paper is the role of the media of communication and technology in shaping human perception of reality and attitude toward the natural world. It analyzes the oral, literate, technological, and "electronic" mind within the environmental context. The roots and the consequences of the "split" between humans and the rest of nature is a leading theme. A search is made for venues that might lead us out of the current environmental crisis and lay the foundations for human culture that would not be a contradiction of nature but our task within it.

The Information Bikepath: The Media and Political Ecology of the Green Party of Ontario
Kevin Ells
Vol. 2 No. 1 ISBN 1-55014-317-4
The paper examines friendship, politics, language, organization and communications in the context of the author's experiences with the Toronto chapter of the Green Party of Ontario. He became a public and media spokesperson and ran in the Toronto riding of Fort York in the 1995 provincial election. The second part of the paper extends Howard Innis' concept of media bias to some concerns an organization should have about how its selection of media interacts with its audience and administration. The paper ends with an examination of our media milieu.

Cities Without Borders
Paul Csagoly
Vol. 2 No. 2 ISBN 1-55014-318-2
The novel centres on two characters, Istvan Szabo, a Hungarian law student writing for an English newspaper in Budapest, and Peter Horvath, a Toronto property developer of Hungarian ancestry. As Hungary comes out of its Communist past, Peter is called upon by his firm to travel to Budapest to capitalize on the opening market. Through his experiences in Hungary, Peter connects with this world of his parents. As Budapest moves towards the West, Peter finds himself drifting into its past. Peter and Istvan meet and become friends and both their lives are slowly transformed as the city is transformed. It is the story of Budapest and Toronto. It is the story of what happened in the former Communist Block.

Cities Without Borders
Paul Csagoly
Vol. 2 No. 2 ISBN 1-55014-318-2
The novel centres on two characters, Istvan Szabo, a Hungarian law student writing for an English newspaper in Budapest, and Peter Horvath, a Toronto property developer of Hungarian ancestry. As Hungary comes out of its Communist past, Peter is called upon by his firm to travel to Budapest to capitalize on the opening market. Through his experiences in Hungary, Peter connects with this world of his parents. As Budapest moves towards the West, Peter finds himself drifting into its past. Peter and Istvan meet and become friends and both their lives are slowly transformed as the city is transformed. It is the story of Budapest and Toronto. It is the story of what happened in the former Communist Block.

Critical Responses To Development: Social Movements in Mexico
Blair Eveleigh
Vol. 2 No. 3 ISBN 1-55014-319-0
Linking certain views on power with ideas about identity, the paper examines the role of both of these in the process of social change. The paper asserts that successful and profound social change can only occur when there is substantial understanding and acceptance of the importance of identity. Identity can become a major factor in the creation of positive social change, which involves the re-creation of vernacular values and the acceptance and liberty of the 'other'. Identity in this sense must involve a new relation of subject and object allowing a re-evaluation of the relations of power and the meaning of the individual in society.

Environmental Refugees: Rights and Obligations
Victoria Foote
Vol. 2 No. 4 ISBN 1-55014-320-4
This paper focuses on the phenomenon of involuntary migration due to environmental decline or catastrophe. The paper considers the legitimacy of the term 'environmental refugee' with regard the widely accepted definition of a refugee articulated in the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of refugees. The Convention recognizes the violation of only political and civil rights as a basis for refugee status. This study challenges this definition with the suggestion that, as a product of its historical and political times, the 1951 definition fails to reflect the current realities of forced migration as embodied by the environmental refugee.

Sensual Awareness In Outdoor Recreation: A Path to Connection with the Wilds
Gary Morgan
Vol. 2 No. 5 ISBN 1-55014-321-2
Within the commonly held view that involving people in wilderness based activities increases support for wildlands advocacy, the author advances the position that an intimate contact with the earth's communities is necessary to achieve this end. However, the structure an focus of the trip will influence how or if this connection occurs. This paper focuses on the role of sensual awareness in creating this bond.

Reinventing Suburban Housing: Urban Planning for Environmentally Appropriate Affordable Housing in Denmark
Christopher Currie
Vol. 2 No. 6 ISBN 1-55014-322-0
This paper used a case study of Environmentally Appropriate Affordable Housing (EAAH) to explore ways to reduce the environmental impact and improve affordability of suburban housing. It explores Danish planning structures, implementation and policy and how they supported the realization of the EAAH case study. Difficulties in establishing environmental priorities, deciding between competing objectives and the value of using qualitative, non-economic analysis are articulated. Integrative planning and policy approaches involving resident and stakeholder participation and education are found to be preferable and less expensive then purely technological approaches to EAAH. The paper concludes with a summary of the case study findings and examines factors, which led to its success as well as identifying compromises and unresolved issues.

1996

The Open Mythology Of Green Party Politics
Jeff Culbert
Vol. 1 No. 1
Since the 1980's the Greens in Canada have been presenting a political analysis distinct from that of the uncontested political ideology of both the left and the right. Canadian Green Parties are presented as advocates of a political movement in opposition to, and distinct from, the dominant technocracy of elite experts and managers shaping our existence.

Utopia-As-Process
Len Hart
Vol. 1 No. 2
The paper explores the shaping of utopia and its role in society. It investigates this role with reference to the transformation of the genre by feminist science fiction writers during the 1970's. With reviews of recent and seminal works in the field of utopian studies, the paper examines the political nature of the utopian process.

Colonialism, Identity, And Development: A Case Study from Northern Ontario
Bonita Lawrence
Vol. 1 No. 3
The connection between the structural and personal manifestation of colonialism is explored in this paper documenting the author's experience in a Cree community engaged in organizing to protect its traditional lands from hydroelectric development in Northeastern Ontario is connected to the authors own struggles with race, class, and gender in doing environmental activism.